Software Engineering Code of Ethics • IEEE Computer Society
Jargon File Resources
How to be a Programmer (
Five-Minute-Task Time Estimate Worksheet
Twelve Tips for Realistic Scheduling | StickyMinds
Hacker's Wisdom
Joel on Software
GitHub - ossu/computer-science: Path to a free self-taught education in Computer Science!
Open Source Society University. The OSSU curriculum is a complete education in computer science using online materials.
The most supportive community of programmers and people learning to code.
Computing | Khan Academy
Stack Overflow
A collaboratively edited question and answer site for professional and enthusiast programmers.
Stack Overflow Insights - Developer Hiring, Marketing, and User Research
ACM Digital Library
Association for Computing Machinery, The Digital Library, The Guide to Computing Literature.
The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7
IIEEE Std 1003.1™-2017 (Revision of IEEE Std 1003.1-2008)
POSIX.1-2017 is simultaneously IEEE Std 1003.1™-2017 and The Open Group Technical Standard Base Specifications, Issue 7.
POSIX.1-2017 defines a standard operating system interface and environment, including a command interpreter (or “shell”), and common utility programs to support applications portability at the source code level. POSIX.1-2017 is intended to be used by both application developers and system implementors.
Regular Expressions
The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, 2018 edition IEEE; Std 1003.1-2017 (Revision of IEEE Std 1003.1-2008).
This chapter 9 is also known as POSIX regular expressions.
UTS #18: Unicode Regular Expressions
Regex Tutorial—From Regex 101 to Advanced Regex
Regular Expressions - Wikibooks, open books for an open world - Regex Tutorial, Examples and Reference - Regexp Patterns
Online regex tester and debugger: PHP, PCRE, Python, Golang and JavaScript
RegExr: Learn, Build, & Test RegEx
Regulex:JavaScript Regular Expression Visualizer
Debuggex: Online visual regex tester. JavaScript, Python, and PCRE.
Another one that wants you to create an account..
Regular Expression Library
Over 1500 regular expressions to give you nightmares. A bit .NET centric though..
Regex Crossword
Crossword puzzles using regular expressions.
Regular Expressions - Old location of the ICU User Guide
... but better table layout than the new location.
ICU Regular Expression Demonstration
Implementing Regular Expressions
html - RegEx match open tags except XHTML self-contained tags - Stack Overflow
You can't parse [X]HTML with regex. Because HTML can't be parsed by regex.
The UNIX System
The Single UNIX Specification, Version 3
Free Standards Group
The Free Standards Group is an independent, nonprofit organization dedicated to accelerating the use of free and open source software by developing and promoting standards.
Developer Declaration of Independence
Sign it!
Overview of the SCIT
WIPO Standing Committee on Information Technologies
CoRR - Computing Research Repository
CoRR allows researchers to search, browse and download papers through its online repository. CoRR is available to all members of of the community at no charge.
Documentation Archive
Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it.
Einführung in die strukturierte Programmierung -- Vorlesungsunterstützung für Lehrveranstaltungen des IICM
The Unified Modeling Language™ - UML - is OMG's [Object Management Group] most-used specification, and the way the world models not only application structure, behavior, and architecture, but also business process and data structure.
Holub Associates: UML Reference Card
Practical UML(TM): A Hands-On Introduction for Developers
UML Tutorial
Little Unix Programmers Group (LUPG)'s Little Site
Multi-Threaded Programming With POSIX Threads
Unix Multi-Process Programming and Inter-Process Communications (IPC)
Code Corner
By Steve Litt at Troubleshooters.Com. Tutorials and links about XML, Perl, PHP, sockets, Python, shell scripts, SQL, prime numbers, PostgreSQL.
GitHub - danistefanovic/build-your-own-x: 🤓 Build your own `insert technology here`. A curated collection of project-based programming tutorials.
Koders - Source Code Search Engine
Der Keiler Coding
Archive of newsgroups related to programming languages.
efg's Computer Lab and Reference Library
The Computer Lab contains Lab Reports and Technical Notes on topics including, image processing, color science, computer graphics, mathematics, fractals & chaos, science & engineering.
The Reference Library contains two major sections, Delphi and Technical, each of which is a compendium of information from a wide variety of Internet resources. The Algorithms, Color, and Image Processing Reference Library pages are the most popular.
Learn to code | Codecademy
Learn to Code and Help Nonprofits | Free Code Camp
Code practice and mentorship for everyone.
99 Bottles — Sandi Metz
99 Bottles of OOP is a practical guide to writing cost-effective, maintainable, and pleasing object-oriented code. - Articles and Resources
Fachbegriffe der Informatik ;-)
Besser sehen und arbeiten am Computer (


Algorithm Implementation - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Category:Algorithms - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Category:Articles with example code - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Category:Articles with example pseudocode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Category:Articles with example C code - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures
Algorithms and Data Structures, PDF (LGL - Software Engineering Laboratory - EPFL)
The Stony Brook Algorithm Repository
Data Structures and Algorithms with Object-Oriented Design Patterns in C++
Algorithmen und Datenstrukturen
Programmieren in C, von Prof. Jürgen Plate
Abt. für Algorithmen und Daten Strukturen (TU Wien)
Allgemeine und spezielle Sortieralgorithmen + Suchalgorithmen
Informationen und Visualisierungen (Applets) zu ALLEN Sortieralgorithmen (und einigen Suchalgorithmen). Natürlich mit vollständigen Codebeispielen, Laufzeitabschätzungen, Optimierungsvorschlägen, ...
algorithms, calculations and formulae
Research of the Algorithms and Data Structures Group at TU Vienna
The Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms, Vienna University of Technology -- General Programming
Album of Algorithms and Techniques
The Complete Collection of Algorithm Animations
The Complete Collection of Algorithm Animations (CCAA) is a comprehensive collection of links to all of the algorithm animations that can be run over the Internet. Each of these sites provides animations that aide the learning and understanding of algorithms.
Intro to Algorithms: CHAPTER 31: MATRIX OPERATIONS
Matrix Reference Manual
Linear Algebra Glossary
Levenshtein Distance ( and
The "Double-Checked Locking is Broken" Declaration
Understanding Dijkstra's Algorithm
Dijkstra’s algorithm is used to solve the single source shortest path.
See also Dijkstra's algorithm - Wikipedia
Bloom filter - Wikipedia
Cuckoo hashing - Wikipedia
Bloom Filter | Brilliant Math & Science Wiki
Cuckoo Filter | Brilliant Math & Science Wiki
Raft Consensus Algorithm Unraveled

Art Patterns

Design Patterns | Object Oriented Design (
Category:Software design patterns - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phil’s Data Structure Zoo | Phil
The Art of Unix Programming - Your Patterns Library
Portland Pattern Repository
Patterns: Catalog of NonSoftware Examples - AGCS
Gamasutra - The Art & Science of Making Games
Essential Math for Games Programmers
The Memory Management Reference
Category:Anti-patterns - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Secure Coding

Secure Programming | Red Hat Developers
Secure Internet Programming Laboratory
CWE - CWE/SANS Top 25 Most Dangerous Programming Errors
CERT Secure Coding Standards - Secure Coding - CERT Secure Coding Standards
INT30-C. Ensure that unsigned integer operations do not wrap - Secure Coding - CERT Secure Coding Standards
INT32-C. Ensure that operations on signed integers do not result in overflow - Secure Coding - CERT Secure Coding Standards
Security Engineering - A Guide to Building Dependable Distributed Systems
Ross Anderson's Security Engineering book.
SAFECode Publications
A non-profit, public good software signing & transparency service. Software Supply Chain Security.

UI Design

... brings Open Source Developers and Usability Experts together.
interface hall of shame [mirror of] (Isys Information Architects Inc. (UI design shame and fame)) is dead, but some of these are just too bad to not be shown..
The Humane Interface - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Humane Interface: New Directions for Designing Interactive Systems (ISBN 0-201-37937-6) is a book about user interface design written by Jef Raskin and published in 2000. It covers ergonomics, quantification, evaluation, and navigation.
Nitpicker / The Humane Interface
A summary of design rules, Jef Raskin
[hemmerling] Rapid Software Application and GUI Prototyping
Penpot - Design Freedom for Teams
Penpot is the first Open Source design and prototyping platform meant for cross-domain teams.
Source GitHub - penpot/penpot: Penpot - The Open-Source design & prototyping platform
Pencil Project
GitHub - evolus/pencil: The Pencil Project's unique mission is to build a free and opensource tool for making diagrams and GUI prototyping that everyone can use.
fluidIA is an emerging agile design tool for prototyping rich user interfaces.
Appears to be dead, old source code at github
Web mockup tool, with export to Codepen.
CodePen: Online Code Editor and Front End Web Developer Community | Musings on the world of software prototyping and effective design (

Media - Free computer science and programming books
This site lists free online computer science books and lecture notes, all of which are freely and legally available over the Internet. ebooks
Free Computer Science Ebooks and Resources - A Link Collection -- O'Reilly Media, Inc. -- computer books, software conferences, online publishing -- O'Reilly Verlag
O'Reilly -- Safari Books Online
O'Reilly OpenBooks - Deutsch & English
CMP's Software Development Media Group
DDJ - Dr. Dobb's Journal / directory


Scrum Development Process
Jutta Eckstein: Agile Software Developemt in the Large
Extreme Rules
Extreme Programming: A Gentle Introduction.
Practice of Programming - Collected Rules
by B.W. Kernighan and R. Pike
Publications and Presentations
Some of Kevlin Henney's articles, and conference presentations and papers.
Experiment, Discover What Works, Move on. -On Software Projects - Theory vs Practice vs Software Development - by Igor Ješe
Dynamic Programming: 7 Steps to Solve any DP Interview Problem

Mathematical, Numerical and Statistical

Scientific Computing FAQ: Scientific Computing and Numerical Analysis FAQ
Mathematica Information Center
Wolfram Resource Library, MathWorld, ScienceWorld, ... The technical computing portal for all your scientific and engineering needs. (
The Netlib
Netlib is a collection of mathematical software, papers, and databases.
John Burkardt's Home Page
Scientific Computing Sources in C, C++, Fortran, ...
Astronomy and numerical software source codes
Stephen L. Moshier's site, also home of the Cephes library
GSL - GNU Scientific Library - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)
The GNU Scientific Library (GSL) is a numerical library for C and C++ programmers. It is free software under the GNU General Public License.
The library provides a wide range of mathematical routines such as random number generators, special functions and least-squares fitting. There are over 1000 functions in total with an extensive test suite.
[ GTL ] The Graph Template Library
GTL, the Graph Template Library GTL can be seen as an extension of the Standard Template Library STL to graphs and fundamental graph algorithms.
Now linked under the Projects page.
Numerical Recipes Home Page
Numerical Methods Lecture Notes
Free C/C++ Sources for Numerical Computation
Free Numerical, Mathematical and Statistical Libraries and Source Code (
C++ Financial Algorithms (Financial Numerical Recipes)
Introduction to Uncertainties (PDF)
The Statistics Homepage
This Electronic Statistics Textbook offers training in the understanding and application of statistics.
StatLib---Applied Statistics algorithms
The R Project for Statistical Computing
Statistical Science Web: Statistical Computing
Statistical Reference Datasets (StRD)
The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.
Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) - Eero Hyvönen
Some papers of Eero Hyvönen on interval computations.
Resources for Improving Accuracy in Statistical Software
American Statistical Association Portal :: Statistical Accuracy of Spreadsheet Software - The American Statistician - Volume 65, Issue 4
This study compares the accuracy of six spreadsheet packages: Excel, Google Docs, Gnumeric, Numbers, OpenOffice Calc, and Quattro Pro.
Projects · ixion / ixion · GitLab
Ixion is a general purpose formula parser, interpreter, formula cell dependency tracker and spreadsheet document model backend all in one package.
Programmer's guide to polynomials and splines
Weighted arithmetic mean - Wikipedia
IMDb - Wikipedia
Here for the old IMDb Rankings, weighted rating, which was a weighted arithmetic mean, W=(R*v+C*m)/(v+m), with W=Weighted, R=average_Rating_of_item, v=votes, m=minimum_votes, C=mean_vote_across_the_whole.
Ranking Items With Star Ratings: An Approximate Bayesian Approach – Evan Miller
Bayesian average - Wikipedia
Bayesian Average Ratings – Evan Miller
How Not To Sort By Average Rating – Evan Miller
Deriving the Reddit Formula – Evan Miller

Max-Planck-Institut für Informatik
AT&T Labs Research
Scientific Computing with Free software on GNU/Linux HOWTO

Computer Arithmetic and IEEE 754

IEEE 754 Notation
A quick summary of IEEE 754 Notation, easy to understand.
The Floating-Point Guide - What Every Programmer Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic
Facts for the mere mortals.
Floating Point Demystified, Part 1
Josh Haberman
Floating Point Demystified, Part 2: Why Doesn't 0.1 + 0.2 == 0.3?
Josh Haberman
language agnostic - Is floating point math broken? - Stack Overflow
Comparing Floating-Point Numbers Is Tricky
Floating-point arithmetic - Wikipedia
Of specific interest may be the Accuracy problems section..
Double-precision floating-point format - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Numerical Computation Guide
2005, Sun Microsystems Studio 11, 819-3693-10, HTML.
Numerical Computation Guide
2005, Sun Microsystems Studio 11, 819-3693-10, PDF.
Better readibility of mathematical formulas.
What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic
Appendix D of the Numerical Computation Guide.
The IEEE standard for floating point arithmetic (ShortRef)
The IEEE Floating Point Format (ShortRef)
IEEE-754 References
IEEE 754: Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic
IEEE floating point - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Double-precision floating-point format - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
IEEE Standard 754 Floating-Point
IEEE 754 Converter
Convert between the decimal representation of numbers (like "1.02") and the IEEE 754 floating point format. See which bits are used when.
IEEE-754 Calculators
Decimal floating-point, 32-bit and 64-bit hexadecimal representations along with their binary equivalents.
IEEE-754 Analysis
Interactive IEEE-754 floating-point analyzer. Input, storage and rounding of floating-point numbers. This page lets you examine the relationships among binary and decimal numbers and three number formats described by the IEEE-754-2008 floating-point standard.
Base Convert: IEEE 754 Floating Point
IEEE 754 Calculator
This is a little calculator intended to help you understand the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point computation.
And show how 0.1 + 0.2 ≠ 0.3
Decimal to Floating-Point Converter - Exploring Binary
Decimal/Binary Converter - Exploring Binary
CodeGuru Forums - C++ General: How is floating point representated?
FAQ about some IEEE 754 aspects.
double - and how to use it - C++ Forum
This article shows some properties of "double" atithmetic, and what you can and can't do with it.
Comparing Floating Point Numbers, 2012 Edition | Random ASCII
Bruce Dawson's reviewed edition of Comparing floating point numbers.
There may be more available in the Floating Point category. See also Float Precision Revisited: Nine Digit Float Portability | Random ASCII
Correct Decimal To Floating-Point Using Big Integers - Exploring Binary
How to round binary numbers - JavaScript inDepth
Floating Point Representation (.ps PostScript file)
by Michael L. Overton
15. Floating Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations — Python 3 documentation
GitHub - vpiotr/decimal_for_cpp: Decimal data type for C++
If you need something like a fixed point decimal currency type in C++.
Floating-Point Arithmetic Besieged by “Business Decisions” (PDF)
Page 7 ff., Values Excel 2000 Displays for Several Expressions, Parentheses in Microsoft’s Excel 2000 spreadsheet can have uncanny powers, by Prof. W. Kahan
Mindless (PDF)
How Futile are Mindless Assessments of Roundoff in Floating-Point Computation? by Prof. W. Kahan
Bug 131588 – SUM algorithm properties
Gnumeric's thoughts about and approach to the SUM accuracy problem
Kahan summation algorithm - Wikipedia
AKA compensation algorithm. Sum with better numerical stability.
Binary floating point summation accurate to full precision « Python recipes « ActiveState Code
Python implementation of algorithm from Shewchuk.
Algorithms for calculating variance - Wikipedia
Don't use the naïve algorithm..
Accurately computing sample variance online
Exploring Binary - Binary Numbers, Binary Code, and Binary Logic
With some floating point / decimals in-depths.
Decimal Precision of Binary Floating-Point Numbers - Exploring Binary
Binary floating point summation accurate to full precision « Python recipes « ActiveState Code
Allegedly "Completely eliminates rounding errors and loss of significance due to catastrophic cancellation during summation"
Community Tools
Floating-point Research Tools
Tutorial on Floating-Point Analysis Tools
Herbie: Automatically Improving Floating Point Accuracy
Find and fix floating-point problems. Herbie detects inaccurate expressions and finds more accurate replacements.
Publications - Florian Loitsch
Particulary interesting for
Printing Floating-Point Numbers Quickly and Accurately with Integers (PDF)
The double-conversion implementation
The Grisu benchmark implementation
David M. Gay's floating-point conversions in C, locale independent strtod(), dtoa(), g_fmt()
How strtod() Works (and Sometimes Doesn't) - Exploring Binary
GitHub - ulfjack/ryu: Converts floating point numbers to decimal strings
GitHub - expnkx/fast_io: fast_io is a C++ general-purpose exception-safe RAII I/O library based on C++ 20 Concepts. It is at least ten times faster than cstdio or iostream.
Includes Ryu implementation.
General Decimal Arithmetic
The problems of binary floating-point can be avoided by using base 10 (decimal) exponents and preserving those exponents where possible. This site describes a decimal arithmetic which achieves the necessary results and is suitable for both hardware and software implementation.
William Kahan
Professor Emeritus of Mathematics, and of E.E. & Computer Science

0.1 + 0.2 ≠ 0.3

Floating Point Demystified, Part 2: Why Doesn't 0.1 + 0.2 == 0.3?
Floating-point arithmetic - Accuracy problems - Wikipedia
As we all know, 0.1 + 0.2 != 0.3
IEEE 754 Calculator
This is a little calculator intended to help you understand the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point computation.
And show how 0.1 + 0.2 ≠ 0.3
Base Convert: IEEE 754 Floating Point
Decimal to Floating-Point Converter - Exploring Binary
Floating-point arithmetic may give inaccurate results in Excel
Understanding Floating Point Precision, aka “Why does Excel Give Me Seemingly Wrong Answers?” - Office Blogs
Numeric precision in Microsoft Excel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Loss of significance - Wikipedia
xkcd: Garbage Math



Git - Fast Version Control System
Git is a free & open source, distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency.
Git FAQ - Git SCM Wiki
Git Reference (
Meant to be a quick reference for learning and remembering the most important and commonly used Git commands.
Domain was hijacked by GitHub to redirect to commercial services, hence
Home // Think Like (a) Git
Git shouldn't be so hard to learn.
Git Immersion - Brought to you by Neo
Git Immersion is a guided tour that walks through the fundamentals of Git, inspired by the premise that to know a thing is to do it.
Git for Computer Scientists
Quick introduction to git internals for people who are not scared by words like Directed Acyclic Graph.
Git Magic - Preface
git ready » learn git one commit at a time
Git Community Book
Git - Texas Instruments Embedded Processors Wiki
Short instructions to get Git running, even behind a firewall.
Git User’s Manual (for version 1.5.3 or newer)
tbaggery - A Note About Git Commit Messages
Git commit practices your future self will thank you for
A history of clean commits can be evidence of a lot of things: attention to detail, good work ethic, and genuine investment in the project. What do your Git commits say about you?
Git Tags
Welcome to - The Git Experts | GitGuys - GitGuys
git simplified?!
Git from the inside out
This essay explains how Git works. The essay assumes you understand Git well enough to use it to version control your projects. It focuses on the graph structure that underpins Git and the way the properties of this graph dictate Git’s behavior.
Stacked Git
StGit is a Python application providing similar functionality to Quilt (i.e. pushing/popping patches to/from a stack) on top of Git. These operations are performed using Git commands and the patches are stored as Git commit objects, allowing easy merging of the StGit patches into other repositories using standard Git functionality.
StGit tutorial
Git - StGit Crash Course
Interfaces, frontends, and tools - Git SCM Wiki
Main Page - Git SCM Wiki
All about Git.
Pro Git - Pro Git Book
The website for the Pro Git book, written by Scott Chacon and published by Apress. Here you can find the full content of the book, a blog with tips and updates about Git and the book and open source projects related to Git or referenced in the book.
Git Merge vs. Rebase: What’s the Diff? – Hacker Noon
Merging vs. Rebasing | Atlassian Git Tutorial
Learn Git Branching
Interactive tutorial.
Git Tutorial: Branching and Merging | Wazi
A successful Git branching model »
The git-flow Git flow.
A Rebase Workflow for Git |
nvie/gitflow · GitHub
A collection of Git extensions to provide high-level repository operations for Vincent Driessen's branching model.
the woes of “git gc –aggressive” (and how git deltas work) « Metalinguistic Abstraction
Introduction · Tig - Text-mode interface for Git
Tig is an ncurses-based text-mode interface for git. It functions mainly as a Git repository browser, but can also assist in staging changes for commit at chunk level and act as a pager for output from various Git commands.
AlBlue’s Blog: git
Git Tips of the Week.
AlBlue’s Blog: gerrit
Nice video in Gerrit Git Review with Jenkins CI Server
Gerrit Code Review
Gerrit provides web based code review and repository management for the Git version control system.
Gerrit Code Review for Git
Documentation and Tutorial
gertty : Python Package Index
Gertty is a console-based interface to the Gerrit Code Review system.
Welcome to Jenkins CI! | Jenkins CI
An extensible open source continuous integration server.
Google authentication for Gerrit and Jenkins - Stack Overflow
Google deprecated OpenID 2.0 and it will shut down the service in May 2015, replacing it with OAuth2.0 (OpenID connect). This is how Gerrit and Jenkins can be adapted via Apache reverse proxy and mod_auth_openidc.
How to Git PR From The Command Line – Hacker Noon
Learn to use email with git!
Git ships with built-in tools for collaborating over email. With this guide, you'll be contributing to email-driven projects like the Linux kernel, PostgreSQL, or even git itself in no time.
git-annex allows managing files with git, without checking the file contents into git.
Git vs Mercurial - WikiVS
Git - SVN Crash Course
Git for SVN users. - Software/ooo-build/SVNToGitCheatSheet
Command cheat sheet for SVN and Git
GitSvnCrashCourse - Git SCM Wiki
Git crash course for SVN users.
Migrate from SVN to Git easily with git-svn | Wazi
An introduction to git-svn for Subversion/SVK users and deserters
git-svn-tutorial – Parrot
Converting to git-svn: A collection of links — justin hileman dot info
Develop with Git on a Google Code Project - Google Open Source Blog
Actually work with Git on a SVN project, such as AOOo
Export a Git Project to Google Code - Google Open Source Blog
Actually work with Git on a SVN project, such as AOOo
Minimal Readership: svn switch --relocate for a git-svn repo
If your SVN master was relocated, git-svn will have a hard time; this script could ease the pain.
HgGit - Mercurial
This extension adds the ability to work on a Git repository from Mercurial. It also allows using a Git server as a collaboration point for a team with developers using both Git and Mercurial. At the same time, it can also be used to interact with a hg repository using git.
version control - Git interoperability with a Mercurial Repository - Stack Overflow » Using hg-git to work in git and push to hg
Git pretty — justin hileman dot info
How to handle a mess.
Git Behind the Curtain: What Happens When You Commit, Branch, and Merge - DZone DevOps
A Small Matter of Programming: Painless Merge Conflict Resolution in Git
Using Meld and adding independent diff views from BASE to LOCAL and BASE to REMOTE file.
Git hosting and collaboration software, free hosting for open source projects that use Git.
GitHub · Build software better, together.
GitHub - github/hub: A command-line tool that makes git easier to use with GitHub.
git + hub = github ; hub is a command line tool that wraps git in order to extend it with extra features and commands that make working with GitHub easier.
See examples here: hub · an extension to command-line git
GitHub CLI | Take GitHub to the command line
What about Hub then? cli/ at trunk · cli/cli · GitHub
Which remote URL should I use? - GitHub Help
Caching your GitHub password in Git - GitHub Help
Creating a personal access token for the command line - GitHub Help
Git automation with OAuth tokens - GitHub Help
Recovering your account if you lose your 2FA credentials - GitHub Docs
Development Guides | GitHub Developer Guide
Keeping your GitHub Actions and workflows secure: Preventing pwn requests - GitHub Security Lab
Or.. why not to checkout and build PRs from untrusted sources on a local machine without carefully examining the code for the PR.
GitHub - ptrofimov/github-backup-sh: Simple shell script to backup all GitHub repos for specified user
Prose · A Content Editor for GitHub
Bintray is a social service for developers to publish, download, store, promote, and share open source software packages.
As the name suggests it is meant for binary releases.
Gitter — Where developers come to talk.
Gitter is a chat and networking platform that helps to manage, grow and connect communities through messaging, content and discovery.
Git Large File Storage | Git Large File Storage (LFS) replaces large files such as audio samples, videos, datasets, and graphics with text pointers inside Git, while storing the file contents on a remote server like or GitHub Enterprise.
Code, test, and deploy together with GitLab open source git repo management software | GitLab
GitLab unifies issues, code review, CI and CD into a single UI. GitLab offers git repository management, code reviews, issue tracking, activity feeds and wiki’s.
GitHub - zaquestion/lab: Lab wraps Git or Hub, making it simple to clone, fork, and interact with repositories on GitLab
git + lab = gitlab ; including seamless workflows for creating merge requests, issues and snippets. Wraps hub if present.
Shivering-Isles / Mirror Bot · GitLab
Small script to realize pull mirrors in GitLab.
A painless self-hosted Git service. Less resource hungry.
Gitea compared to other Git hosting options - Docs
The Non-Profit Collaboration Project. Formerly TeaHub.
GetItOnCodeberg Badge-Generator
How to build a Hugo static site automatically using Drone CI and Free code hosting
A free-software code collaboration platform for freely licensed projects.
sourcehut - the hacker's forge
The open source software suite for managing your software development projects that you've been waiting for.
The account, billing, and security management hub for sourcehut, the hacker's forge.
GNU Ethical Repository Criteria Evaluations - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation
GNU Savannah, GitLab, GitHub, SourceForge
Public Git Hosting - git-dm.git/summary
Git Data Miner. Commit statistics.
GitHub - ejwa/gitinspector: The statistical analysis tool for git repositories
GitHub - morucci/repoxplorer: RepoXplorer - Statistics explorer for Git repositories
GitHub - aserg-ufmg/Truck-Factor: A tool that estimates the Truck Factor of GitHub projects
This is a tool for estimating the Truck Factor of GitHub projects, using information from commit history. Truck Factor (also known as Bus Factor or Lottery Number) is the minimal number of developers that have to be hit by a truck (or leave) before a project is incapacitated.
Stop writing rambling commit messages
Git over an ssh tunnel (like through a firewall or VPN) |
Git through SSH port forwarding (SSH tunneling) | Rails, Web 2.0, Data Modeling
permissions - How to configure an existing git repo to be shared by a UNIX group - Stack Overflow
permissions - How do I share a Git repository with multiple users on a machine? - Server Fault
bash - How do I delete absolutely every remote branches from my git repos - Stack Overflow
Git man page generator
Take this with a grain of salt ;-)

Mercurial, hg

Mercurial - Mercurial
A fast, lightweight Source Control Management system designed for efficient handling of very large distributed projects.
Hg Init: a Mercurial tutorial by Joel Spolsky
Mercurial in 6 steps, including re-education of Subversion users.
Mercurial: The Definitive Guide
This is the online home of the book Mercurial: The Definitive Guide.
GitConcepts - Mercurial
Command cheat sheet for Mercurial and Git

Subversion, SVN (SVN)
Version Control with Subversion
The online home of Version Control with Subversion, a free book about Subversion (SVN), published by O'Reilly.


Version Management with CVS - manual
Version Management with CVS by Per Cederqvist et al is the "official" manual for CVS. Commonly known as "the Cederqvist," the manual covers repositories, branches, and file maintenance, and includes reference material for both CVS users and CVS repository administrators.
A CVS Book
Open Source Development with CVS, 3rd Edition. Available under the GNU General Public License.
The CVS-Optimized General-Purpose Network File Distribution System. CVSup is a software package for distributing and updating collections of files across a network.

Vi IMproved, VIM and related

The VIM (Vi IMproved) Home Page
Vim - the ubiquitous text editor.
Vimdoc : the online source for Vim documentation
Vim documentation - Vim Tips Wiki - Vim
Main Page - Vim Tips Wiki
VimConfig - Sane and simple Vim configuration
Interactive vimrc generation for starters.
Your problem with Vim is that you don't grok vi.
Answer to a vi - What is your most productive shortcut with Vim? question on Stack Overflow
Vim Commands Cheat Sheet
Vim Modes Transition Diagram in SVG
Note, most of the nodes in this graph have clickable hyperlinks to documentation.
Source of the Gist in case RawGit goes away. The renderable SVG is also WaybackMachine'd (downloadable URL) and'ed (not downloadable)
Graphical vi-vim Cheat Sheet and Tutorial
Vim Recipes - Free cookbook for the Vim text editor
Why, oh WHY, do those #?@! nutheads use vi?
Home of the freenode #VIM channel, some pointers.
Cream: The easy-to-use free text editor for Windows and Linux
For Vim newbies. Cream is a free and easy-to-use configuration of the powerful and famous Vim text editor for both Microsoft Windows and GNU/Linux.
vim tips and tricks: home
Vim - Notes
"A Byte of Vim" is a book which aims to help you to learn how to use the Vim editor (version 7), even if all you know is how to use the computer keyboard.
Efficient Editing With vim - Jonathan McPherson
Vim Cookbook
This is the Vim cookbook page. It contains short recipes for doing many simple and not so simple things in Vim. You should already know the basics of Vim, however each command is explained in detail.
Dr Chip's Vim Page
Charles E. Campbell's universe of vim and vimscripts.
Vim Regular Expressions 101
Best of VIM Tips, VIM's Key Features
Sven Guckes' vimrc.forall
Dr Chip's Vim Page
Using undo branches - Vim Tips Wiki
Learn Vimscript the Hard Way
a book for users of the Vim editor who want to learn how to customize Vim.
OmniCppComplete - C++ completion omnifunc with a ctags database : vim online
For Vim >=7.0
YouCompleteMe by Valloric
A code-completion engine for Vim.
clang complete - Use of Clang for completing C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ : vim online - extended % matching for HTML, LaTeX, and many other languages : vim online
Also in the Vim distribution package (macros/matchit.vim), but this one may be newer.
Align.vim - Provides commands and maps to help produce aligned text, eqns, declarations, etc : vim online
Requires the cecutil.vim plugin.
AutoAlign - Automatically align as you type (autoalign): bib c c++ html maple matlab tex vim : vim online
Requires the Align.vim plugin.
netrw.vim - Network oriented reading, writing, and browsing (keywords: netrw ftp scp) : vim online
taglist.vim - Source code browser (supports C/C++, java, perl, python, tcl, sql, php, etc) : vim online
tagexplorer.vim - Tag explorer for various programming language files : vim online
GitHub - ludovicchabant/vim-gutentags: A Vim plugin that manages your tag files
lid.vim - Plugin to integrate GNU id-utils tool with Vim : vim online
cecscope - command and menu driven cscope interface : vim online
fugitive.vim - A Git wrapper so awesome, it should be illegal : vim online
Most useful the :Ggrep and :Gblame commands and :Gdiff, see also Fugitive.vim - resolving merge conflicts with vimdiff
Also on GitHub - tpope/vim-fugitive: fugitive.vim: A Git wrapper so awesome, it should be illegal
vimagit - A new way to use git with vim. : vim online
See the feature set on its GitHub page.
Install as a pathogen.vim bundle.
vcscommand.vim - CVS/SVN/SVK/git/hg/bzr integration plugin : vim online
CVSconflict - CVS conflict resolution using vimdiff : vim online
undo_tags - small utility that lets you tag undo branches : vim online
DrawIt.tar.gz - Use arrow keys to draw lines, ctrl-v for boxes and ellipses : vim online
TVO: The Vim Outliner - Turn vim into a full-featured text outliner : vim online
snipMate - TextMate-style snippets for Vim : vim online
mru.vim - Plugin to manage Most Recently Used (MRU) files : vim online
speeddating.vim - Use CTRL-A/X to increment dates, times, and more : vim online - Buffer Explorer / Browser : vim online
LargeFile - Edit large files quickly (keywords: large huge speed) : vim online
RunView - Run scripts through filter and display output in separate window : vim online
characterize.vim - Unicode character metadata : vim online
Working with Unicode - Vim Tips Wiki
set_utf8.vim - Switching to Unicode in an orderly manner : vim online
gnupg.vim - Plugin for transparent editing of gpg encrypted files. : vim online
LogiPat - Boolean-Logic Patterns : vim online
GetLatestVimScripts.vim - Automates retrieval of latest scripts you use : vim online
Integrated in Vim 7.0 as plugin/getscript.vim
pathogen.vim - Poor man's package manager. Easy manipulation of 'runtimepath' et al : vim online
greputils - Interface with grep, find and id-utils (not just another grep wrapper) : vim online
This is mostly interesting for the IDGrep command, since as of version 7.0 Vim has an internal grep command. However, lid.vim does overrule this.
Requires the following plugins to be installed:
genutils.vim - General utility functions : vim online
multvals.vim - Array library that uses patterns as separators : vim online
grep.vim - Grep/Fgrep/Egrep/Agrep tools integration with Vim : vim online
A simple wrapper in case you don't want the sophisticated greputils solution above. Not needed with Vim >= 7.0
scriptease.vim - A Vim plugin for Vim plugins : vim online
visual_studio.vim - Vim and Microsoft Visual Studio .NET integration : vim online
Integrate gvim with Visual Studio - Vim Tips Wiki
How to search at vim 'scriptnames' command - Stack Overflow
Vim Scripts
Mirror of all scripts, using Git
Vim Awesome
Awesome Vim plugins from across the Universe.
GitHub - fatih/vim-go: Go development plugin for Vim
Generate all Unicode characters - Vim Tips Wiki
The perfect programming font - Vim Tips Wiki - a Wikia wiki
Identify the syntax highlighting group used at the cursor - Vim Tips Wiki
Integrate with Mozilla Thunderbird - Vim Tips Wiki
Encryption - Vim Tips Wiki
Vim offers strong file encryption with Blowfish - TechRepublic
Welcome to Eclim - eclim (eclipse + vim)
How to sort using visual blocks - Vim Tips Wiki :: Work fast. Think well.
Exuberant Ctags
Par - paragraph reformatter
Vim as XML Editor
Welcome to Eclim — eclim (eclipse + vim)
The power of Eclipse in your favorite editor.
VIM Adventures
VimGolf - real Vim ninjas count every keystroke!
how-to-exit-vim/ at master · hakluke/how-to-exit-vim · GitHub
Vim easter eggs : vim
Se also Vim easter egg in command line completion - (gasp!) vim_use@googlegroups
The Vi IMproved Editor Web Ring
A-A-P project: install and develop software
Agide: A-A-P GUI IDE for vim and gdb
the Zimbu programming language


GNU Emacs - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)
XEmacs: The next generation of Emacs
Emacs Basics
Jeremy's Emacs Stuff
Mastering Emacs

Tools misc

EditorConfig helps developers define and maintain consistent coding styles between different editors and IDEs.
GitHub - VSCodium/vscodium: binary releases of VS Code without MS branding/telemetry/licensing
Programming Fonts
With Test Drive live selection.
GitHub - psss/did: What did you do last week, month, year?
Comfortably gather status report data (e.g. list of committed changes) for given week, month, quarter, year or selected date range.
See also did documentation
pastebin - collaborative debugging tool
Paste sample code and/or compiler errors and use URL to refer to in IRC.
Pastebin Service (
another pastebin
Debian Pastezone
and another pastebin
yet another pastebin, with ruby client - terminal pastebin
Pipe commands through netcat to pastebin.
Create a new Gist · GitHub
and yet another pastebin like
Snippets · Explore · GitLab
and yet yet another like pastebin - free image hosting / image upload
hotlinking images - Online Compiler and IDE >> C/C++, Java, PHP, Python, Perl and 40+ other compilers and interpreters
Ideone is an online compiler and debugging tool which allows you to compile source code and execute it online in more than 60 programming languages.
Codepad is an online compiler/interpreter, and a simple collaboration tool. - Android / Python / C# / Java decompiler online
Online compiler, C++ only and well done.
CINT : C++ interpreter Free Programmers' Resources, Free Webmasters' Resources, Free Security Resources
GCC Home Page - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)
GCC, the GNU Compiler Collection, includes front ends for C, C++, Objective-C, Fortran, Java, and Ada, as well as libraries for these languages (libstdc++, libgcj,...).
Option Summary - Using the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC)
GDB Documentation
GDB: The GNU Project Debugger
RMS's gdb Tutorial
Linux Tutorial - GNU GDB Debugger Command Cheat Sheet
GDB Cheat Sheet - GDB Cheat Sheet.pdf
13 Linux Debuggers for C++ Reviewed | Dr Dobb's
July 09, 2013
gdbgui - browser based debugger for C, C++, go, rust, Fortran. Modern gdb frontend.
DDD - Data Display Debugger - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)
GNU DDD is a graphical front-end for command-line debuggers such as GDB, DBX, WDB, Ladebug, JDB, XDB, the Perl debugger, the bash debugger, or the Python debugger. Besides ``usual'' front-end features such as viewing source texts, DDD has become famous through its interactive graphical data display, where data structures are displayed as graphs.
Insight is a graphical user interface to GDB, the GNU Debugger written in Tcl/Tk by people working at Red Hat, Inc. and Cygnus Solutions.
Dead project since 2009.
Concurrent Computer Corporation NightStarLX
Advanced Development And Analysis Tools For Linux, Source-level Debugger, Event Analyzer, Data Monitor, System and Application Tuner.
Review Board | Take the pain out of code review
web-based code review tool
gource - software version control visualization - Google Project Hosting
Software version control visualization.
Veles - Binary Analysis Tool - CodiSec CodiSec
Binary data analysis and visualization.
Source-Navigator is a source code analysis tool. With it, you can edit your source code, display relationships between classes and functions and members, and display call trees.
Valgrind is an award-winning instrumentation framework for building dynamic analysis tools. There are Valgrind tools that can automatically detect many memory management and threading bugs, and profile your programs in detail. You can also use Valgrind to build new tools.
KCachegrind - KDE Profiling Frontend
Profiling Visualization.
The profiling tool Callgrind (previously called Calltree) and the profile data visualization KCachegrind. Callgrind uses runtime instrumentation via the Valgrind framework for its cache simulation and call-graph generation. This way, even shared libraries and dynamically opened plugins can be profiled. The data files generated by Callgrind can be loaded into KCachegrind for browsing the performance results.
GitHub - google/orbit: C/C++ Performance Profiler
Orbit, the Open Runtime Binary Instrumentation Tool. The key differentiator with many existing tools is that no alteration to the target process is necessary.
Linux Performance
Brendan Gregg; perf, perf_events, FlameGraph, ...
'sysprof' is a sampling CPU profiler that uses a kernel module to profile the entire system (not just a single application). It handles shared libraries, and applications do not need to be recompiled. It profiles all running processes, has a GUI, shows the time spent in each branch of the call tree, and can load and save profiles.
BigAdmin: DTrace
Link collection at Oracle.
The Macros (Autoconf Archive)
Macro snippets for GNU autoconf.
My Little UML Page
Well, not mine but that's the title ;-) List of UML tools with short descriptions.
ArgoUML is a modelling tool that helps you do your design using UML.
UML Tool for Fast UML Diagrams - UMLet
Generating UML from C++ code? - Stack Overflow
Umbrello Project - Welcome to Umbrello - The UML Modeller
Umbrello UML Modeller is a Unified Modelling Language (UML) diagram program based on KDE Technology.
Doxygen is a documentation system for C++, C, Java, Objective-C, IDL (Corba and Microsoft flavors) and to some extent PHP, C#, and D.
VCG Overview - Visualization of Compiler Graphs
The VCG tool reads a textual and readable specification of a graph and visualizes the graph. If not all positions of nodes are fixed, the tool layouts the graph using several heuristics as reducing the number of crossings, minimizing the size of edges, centering of nodes.
caolanm/callcatcher - GitHub
Find unused code by collecting methods defined but not called or referenced.
See also Caolán's page
AT&T Labs Research - Software Tools
Graph Visualization Software
The Graphviz layout programs take descriptions of graphs in a simple text language, and make diagrams in several useful formats such as images and SVG for web pages, Postscript for inclusion in PDF or other documents; or display in an interactive graph browser. (Graphviz also supports GXL, an XML dialect.)
Graphviz-Tutorial -
Uebersichtliches GraphViz Tutorial in Deutsch.
Graphviz in your browser.
A directed graph editor for making to-do lists.
GitHub - magjac/d3-graphviz: Graphviz DOT rendering and animated transitions using D3 - ZGRViewer
ZGRViewer is a 2.5D graph visualizer implemented in Java and based upon the Zoomable Visual Transformation Machine. It is specifically aimed at displaying graphs expressed using the DOT language from AT&T GraphViz and processed by programs dot or neato. ZGRViewer is designed to handle large graphs, and offers a zoomable user interface (ZUI), which enables smooth zooming and easy navigation in the visualized structure.
A call graph generation utility for C/C++. This project provides the ability to generate call graphs to aid the task of understanding code. It uses a highly modular set of collection methods and can be adapted to support any language although only C and C++ are currently supported. Uses GraphViz.
Dia a drawing program
Dia is designed to be much like the commercial Windows program 'Visio'. It can be used to draw many different kinds of diagrams. It currently has special objects to help draw entity relationship diagrams, UML diagrams, flowcharts, network diagrams, and simple circuits.
Dia2Code is a small utility used to generate code from a Dia UML class diagram.
GGobi data visualization system.
GGobi is an open source visualization program for exploring high-dimensional data. It provides highly dynamic and interactive graphics such as tours, as well as familiar graphics such as the scatterplot, barchart and parallel coordinates plots. Plots are interactive and linked with brushing and identification.
Gephi, an open source graph visualization and manipulation software
Gephi is an interactive visualization and exploration platform for all kinds of networks and complex systems, dynamic and hierarchical graphs.
ggcov Features
ggcov is a GTK+ GUI for exploring test coverage data produced by C and C++ programs compiled with gcc -fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage. So it's basically a GUI replacement for the gcov program that comes with gcc.
TAU: Tuning and Analyis Utilities
Performance Inspector
Performance analysis tools (includes Java support)
CodeSpelunking's Tools
Short description of tools used by CodeSpelunking: cscope, global, cflow/dot, flawfinder, valgrind, gprof, ...
Cscope Home Page
Cscope is a developer's tool for browsing source code.
Vim/Cscope tutorial
GNU GLOBAL source code tag system
GNU GLOBAL is a source code tag system that works the same way across diverse environments. You can locate a specified object in the source files and move there easily. It is useful for hacking a large project containing many subdirectories, many #ifdef and many main() functions. It is similar to ctags or etags but is different from them at the point of independence of any editor.
Related sites
GLOBAL related tools. Generally useful in development, also without GLOBAL.
Sourcetrail - The open-source cross-platform source explorer
Supported languages: C, C++, Java, Python.
Source-Navigator is a source code analysis tool. With it, you can edit your source code, display relationships between classes and functions and members, and display call trees. You can also build your projects, either with your own makefile, or by using Source-Navigator's build system to automatically generate a makefile. Source-Navigator works with the Insight GUI interface for GDB.
Source code navigation tools
This page is a log of an investigation Greg Lehey made of source code navigation and analysis packages in June and July 2005. It will necessarily remain incomplete, but he may update it. He started the investigation because he was in the position of needing to cut a large program into two halves and insert a clean API between them. To do this he needed to get a good understanding of how the control flow works, and he was looking for tools that might help him.
Survey of source code comprehension tools
Information about and links to some tools/software that make a code maintainer's job (and a developer's job too!) easier. All software mentioned support the C programming language and may support other languages too.
LibrePlan: The open source web application for project planning, monitoring and control
LibrePlan is a collaborative tool to plan, monitor and control projects and has a rich web interface which provides a desktop alike user experience.
Taskjuggler - The Open Source Project Management Software
TaskJuggler provides an optimizing scheduler that computes your project time lines and resource assignments based on the project outline and the constrains that you have provided. The build-in resource balancer and consistency checker offload you from having to worry about irrelevant details and ring the alarm if the project gets out of hand.
tjweb - Summary [Gna!]
tjweb is a web interface for the project management tool TaskJuggler. Its purpose is to provide an http interface to edit taskjuggler tjp files.
Organize and share your to-do, work, grocery, movies and household lists.
GnoTime - The Gnome Time Tracker
The Gnome Time Tracker is a to-do list/diary/journal tool that can track the amount of time spent on projects, and, among other things, generate reports and invoices based on that time. It's being used it to keep shopping lists, organize ideas, track bug reports, keep a diary of activities, do some blogging, provide weekly status reports to management, and even as a consultant billing system.
ANTLR Parser Generator
ANTLR - ANother Tool for Language Recognition (formerly PCCTS) is a language tool that provides a framework for constructing recognizers, compilers, and translators from grammatical descriptions containing Java, C#, C++, or Python actions.
Code::Blocks IDE - Open Source, Cross-platform Free C++ IDE - The sed $HOME
Using sed
Frequently-Asked Questions about sed, the stream editor
Seder's grab bag
Tutorials and insane scripts.
Gimpel Software Bug of the Month Discovered by Lint
linting and fixing code for all languages
FuzzingTools - ThreatMind
ucpp - A C preprocessor designed to be embeddable, quick, light and fully compliant to ISO Standard 9899:1999, aka ISO C99, or simply, C99. - Google Project Hosting
ucpp can be compiled as a stand-alone program, or linked to some other code; in the latter case, ucpp will output tokens, one at a time, on demand, as an integrated lexer.
The BuildBot is a system to automate the compile/test cycle required by most software projects to validate code changes.
Expertise in community localization | Translate House
Pootle, for example is used in LibreOffice localization
Online translation tool | Pootle
Zanata | Open translation, for everyone.
FusionForge is a free software application descendant of the forge originally created for running the platform. FusionForge is licensed under the GNU General Public License, and is a fork/renaming of the code which was previously named GForge.
include-what-you-use - A tool for use with clang to analyze #includes in C and C++ source files
The main goal of include-what-you-use is to remove superfluous #includes. It does this both by figuring out what #includes are not actually needed for this file (for both .cc and .h files), and replacing #includes with forward-declares when possible.
The Meson Build system
Meson is an open source build system meant to be both extremely fast, and, even more importantly, as user friendly as possible.
Bazel - a fast, scalable, multi-language and extensible build system" - Bazel
Google's build tool.
Ninja, a small build system with a focus on speed
Tup is a file-based build system for Linux, OSX, and Windows.
GitHub - ejholmes/walk: A fast, general purpose, graph based build and task execution utility.
Charles Web Debugging Proxy • HTTP Monitor / HTTP Proxy / HTTPS & SSL Proxy / Reverse Proxy
Data science without the drudgery. CSV and Excel and other file formats of tabular data.
Hex to file (binary) converter
Basically what tr -d -c '0-9A-Fa-f' | xxd -p -r does, plus a bunch of other converters.
Free Online IDE and Terminal
For various programming languages.
GDB online Debugger | Compiler - Code, Compile, Run, Debug online C, C++
Taiga is a project management platform for agile developers & designers and project managers.
Kanban and stuff.
Kanban Project Management Software - Kanboard
Wekan — open-source kanban
Planka - Free, Open Source, Trello Alternative
Free open source kanban board for workgroups.
OpenProject - online project management software - free and open source
GitHub - jedisct1/minisign: A dead simple tool to sign files and verify digital signatures.
GitHub - jedisct1/libsodium: A modern, portable, easy to use crypto library.
Sodium is a modern, easy-to-use software library for encryption, decryption, signatures, password hashing and more. It is a portable, cross-compilable, installable, packageable fork of NaCl, with a compatible API, and an extended API to improve usability even further.
Noise Protocol Framework
Crypto protocols that are simple, fast, and secure. Noise is a framework for building crypto protocols. Noise protocols support mutual and optional authentication, identity hiding, forward secrecy, zero round-trip encryption, and other advanced features.
GN Quick Start guide
The Google Chromium build tool.
GN Frequently Asked Questions
GN Reference
Flatpak—the future of application distribution
Welcome to Flatpak’s documentation! — Flatpak documentation
Sandbox Permissions — Flatpak documentation
Portal API Reference — Flatpak documentation
App Requirements · flathub/flathub Wiki · GitHub
GitHub - google/bloaty: Bloaty McBloatface: a size profiler for binaries
The AFL++ fuzzing framework | AFLplusplus
GitHub - gchq/CyberChef: The Cyber Swiss Army Knife - a web app for encryption, encoding, compression and data analysis Free Programmers' Resources, Free Webmasters' Resources, Free Security Resources
Resursseja - Resources
Links to software engineering tools.

Programming People


Real Programmers Don't Use PASCAL


Real Programmers Don't Use Fortran, Either!


Linux Nasm
Assembly programming on Linux with NASM (and C/C++)
x86 assembly language - Wikipedia
Guide to x86 Assembly
This guide describes the basics of 32-bit x86 assembly language programming, covering a small but useful subset of the available instructions and assembler directives.
x86 and amd64 instruction reference
Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer Manuals | Intel® Software
Intel® Intrinsics Guide The 6502 Microprocessor Resource Tutorials and Aids - Opcodes
6502 Introduction
Assembly Tutorials: Learn Assembly Programming... With ChibiAkumas!
What if you knew how computers work?


historical section
The C Book
Reading C Declarations
A Guide for the Mystified
ANSI C Summary
The ANSI Standard: A Summary for the C Programmer
The New C Standard: C99


The C++ Annotations
This document is intended for knowledgeable users of C (or any other language using a C-like grammar, like Perl or Java) who would like to know more about, or make the transition to, C++. (Frank B. Brokken Computing Center, University of Groningen)
C++ reference -
Simply the best C++ reference site.
DevDocs — C++ documentation
Same content as in a different UI. - The C++ resources network
Reference, documentation, tutorials. The second best reference site.
C++ compiler support -
Compiler support for new C++ features.
C++ is Good for the Economy, It Creates Jobs!
Standard C++
The home of Standard C++ on the web — news, status and discussion about the C++ standard on all compilers and platforms.
C++ Super-FAQ : Standard C++
C++ Frequently Questioned Answers
This is C++ FQA Lite. C++ is a general-purpose programming language, not necessarily suitable for your special purpose. FQA stands for "frequently questioned answers". This FQA is called "lite" because it questions the answers found in C++ FAQ Lite. (Or what was known as the C++ FAQ Lite that was). Take it with a grain of salt. And take C++ with a grain of salt.
Stroustrup: C++
The C++ Programming Language, FAQ, C++ Style and Technique FAQ, C++0x - the next ISO C++ standard FAQ
Stroustrup: C++ Glossary
operator whitespace overloading
Stroustrup's serious (?) fun
cplusplus/draft · GitHub
Dick's Index to the December 1996 C++ draft standards
Syntax of C++ as per Draft ANSI/ISO Standard December 1997
Why CS students *must* learn C++ as their main programming language
OOP A: C++-Grammatik (mit Links)
ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG21 - C++
ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG21 is the international standardization working group for the programming language C++.
ISO/ANSI C++ Committee Public Issues Lists, provided as a community service by Comeau Computing
Incompatibilities Between ISO C and ISO C++
C++ Idioms (Presented at EuroPLoP 98)
James O. Coplien (PDF)
A useful template technique, by Nathan C. Myers
C++ Core Guidelines
By Bjarne Stroustrup and Herb Sutter.
C++ Operator Precedence -
C++ Operators, with Precedence and Associativity
The Anatomy of the Assignment Operator
The Assignment Operator Revisited
or why The Anatomy of the Assignment Operator wasn't all that correct.
An Idiot's Guide to C++ Templates - Part 1 - CodeProject
Covering the nitty-gritties of C++ templates.
An Idiot's Guide to C++ Templates - Part 2 - CodeProject
Let's dwell deeper into C++ templates!
LLVM Coding Standards — LLVM documentation
quite reasonable C++ style guide ...
Bruce Eckel's MindView, Inc: Thinking in C++ 2nd Edition by Bruce Eckel
Free Electronic Book Volume 1 & Volume 2
c++ - What is the copy-and-swap idiom? - Stack Overflow
After Herb Sutter's GotW #59: Exception-Safe Class Design, Part 1: Copy Assignment
Rvalue References and Move Semantics in C++11 -
The C++ Source
artima developer's online journal for the C++ community.
c++ faq - The Definitive C++ Book Guide and List - Stack Overflow
Free C/C++ Programming Books (
Learn C++
C++ Tutorial | C++ | Tutorials
Lern Programmieren mit C++! (Stefan Ram)
Learn C and C++ Programming -
Excellent Free Tutorials to Learn C++ - LinuxLinks
C++ Forum :: Linkliste für Neulinge
Bücher, Referenzen, FAQs, ...
Guru of the Week (GotW) Archive - Main Index Page
Sutter’s Mill | Herb Sutter on software, hardware, and concurrency
Andrei Alexandrescu
abseil / C++ Tips of the Week (TotW)
C++ portability guide (Mozilla)
A garbage collector for C and C++
Test Drive Comeau C/C++ Online
Sites of interest to C++ users
The Association of C & C++ Users
Lambda expressions (since C++11) -
Lambdas - C++ Language - Stack Overflow
C++11 - Lambda Closures, the Definitive Guide -
Lambda Expressions in C++
Compiler Explorer
See what assembly code compilers actually generate for your C/C++ code.
Clang-Format Style Options — Clang documentation
CppCon 2018: Timur Doumler “Can I has grammar?” - YouTube
Stephan T. Lavavej “Floating-Point <charconv>: Making Your Code 10x Faster With C++17's Final Boss” - YouTube
CppCon 2019
Modernes C++ | heise Developer


SGI - Services & Support: Standard Template Library Programmer's Guide
The C++ Standard Template Library
STLport Home Page
Nicolai M. Josuttis: The C++ Standard Library
A modest STL tutorial
Links Regarding the C++ Standard Library
U. Breymann: Komponenten entwerfen mit der C++ STL


Upstream Tracker for C/C++ Libraries
Online tool to track API/ABI compatibility in changes of version upgrades.
Available C++ Libraries FAQ
Boost C++ Libraries
Boost Sandbox
mdds / mdds | GitLab
Kohei Yoshida's Multi-Dimensional Data Structure (mdds), segmented trees and indexing algorithm.
diet libc - a libc optimized for small size
The libdjb project
Cap'n Proto: Introduction
Cap’n Proto is an insanely fast data interchange format and capability-based RPC system.
GNU Common C++
Extending the iostream library (printf formatting) object serialization/persistence in C++
MATHPROG - A Collection of Codes for Solving Various Mathematical Programming Problems
IMSSIRUS' Astronomieseite
wvWare, library for converting Word documents
libpng Home Page
libiconv - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)
This library provides an iconv() implementation, for use on systems which don't have one, or whose implementation cannot convert from/to Unicode.
NTL: A Library for doing Number Theory
The GNU MP Bignum Library
The GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library
ClanLib Game SDK
MCrypt is a replacement for the old crypt() package and crypt(1) command, with extensions.
The CGAL home page
Crystal Space: A Free 3D Engine
Simple Sockets Library
GGI - General Graphics Interface
RFID C library
See also RFID information
Telepathy Wiki - FrontPage
Telepathy is a flexible, modular communications framework that enables real-time communication via pluggable protocol backends. Telepathy is a communications service that can be accessed by many applications ("clients") simultaneously.
protobuf - Protocol Buffers - Google's data interchange format - Google Project Hosting
Protocol Buffers are a way of encoding structured data in an efficient yet extensible format. Google uses Protocol Buffers for almost all of its internal RPC protocols and file formats.
Welcome - OpenCV Wiki
OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision) is a library of programming functions for real time computer vision.
GitHub - google/sandboxed-api: Sandboxed API automatically generates sandboxes for C/C++ libraries
The Sandboxed API project (SAPI) aims to make sandboxing of C/C++ libraries less burdensome: after initial setup of security policies and generation of library interfaces, an almost-identical stub API is generated, transparently forwarding calls using a custom RPC layer to the real library running inside a sandboxed environment.
abseil /
Abseil is an open source collection of C++ libraries drawn from the most fundamental pieces of Google’s internal codebase. These libraries are the nuts-and-bolts that underpin almost everything Google runs.

Articles & Interviews

The C++ Style Sweet Spot
A Conversation with Bjarne Stroustrup Interviews
Multiple Inheritance and Interfaces
A Conversation with Scott Meyers Interviews
Designing Contracts and Interfaces
A Conversation with Scott Meyers Interviews
Meaningful Programming
A Conversation with Scott Meyers Interviews
Const, RTTI, and Efficiency
A Conversation with Scott Meyers Interviews
An Effective C++11/14 Sampler | GoingNative 2013 | Channel 9
Scott Meyers' talk on C++11/14
A Collection of Examples of 64-bit Errors in Real Programs - Intel® Software Network
Knowledge Base - Intel® Software Network


Rust Programming Language
Programming Rules to Develop Secure Applications With Rust | Agence nationale de la sécurité des systèmes d'information
Have you considered Rewriting It In Rust?


The Go Programming Language
A Tour of Go
GitHub - golang-standards/project-layout: Standard Go Project Layout
Effective Go - The Go Programming Language
GoDoc hosts documentation for Go packages on Bitbucket, GitHub, Google Project Hosting and Launchpad.
godoctricks - GoDoc
Package godoctricks is a tutorial that deals with tricks for making your godoc organized and neat.
Excellent Free Tutorials to Learn Go - LinuxLinks


Python Programming Language -- Official Website
The Python Tutorial — Python 3 documentation
Python Tutorials - Python Tutorial
GitHub - joaoventura/full-speed-python: At full speed with Python
This book aims to teach the basics of the python programming language using a practical approach.
A Quick, Painless Tutorial on the Python Language
Python Patrol Tutorial
Python-Kurs: Tutorial, Referenz und weiterführende Themen
Excellent Free Tutorials to Learn Python - LinuxLinks
Thonny, Python IDE for beginners
Porting to Python 3: An in-depth guide — Porting to Python 3 - The Book Site
Where is Python's sys.path initialized from? - Stack Overflow
In case you ever wondered..
Deciphering Glyph :: Never Run ‘python’ In Your Downloads Folder
freiesMagazin Python-Sonderausgabe 04/2011 | freiesMagazin
GitHub - cookiecutter/cookiecutter: A command-line utility that creates projects from cookiecutters (project templates), e.g. Python package projects, VueJS projects.
GitHub - wdm0006/cookiecutter-pipproject: A(nother) cookiecutter template for pip-installable python projects
Scientific Computing Tools For Python — Numpy
arrays and stuff
PyNGL Home Page
Scientific visualization, file i/o, data analysis. PyNGL (pronounced "pingle") is a Python language module used to visualize scientific data, with an emphasis on high quality 2D visualizations. A working knowledge of Python is assumed. PyNIO is a Python module used for reading and writing files in several different data formats, including netCDF, GRIB1, HDF 4, HDFEOS 2, and CCM history files. In version 1.2.0, support was added for GRIB2 and for netCDF 4 classic files.
Numerical optimization framework for Python
How to recover lost Python source code if it's still resident in-memory · GitHub


A language for humans and computers.


The V Programming Language
Simple, fast, safe, compiled. For developing maintainable software.


The Perl Directory -
CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network)
Online Documentation - The site for people learning Perl.
Steve Litt's PERLs of Wisdom
PERL Tutorial - Introduction (Tizag)
Picking Up Perl, a Freely Redistributable Perl Tutorial Book
perl ( is a collection of Frequently Asked Questions, "How To" documents, and tutorials about the very cool Perl programming language.
Beginning Perl Tutorials
focused on CGI scripts
PerlMonks - The Monastery Gates
PerlMonks is a community web site devoted to Perl and related issues. It is made up of several hundred contributors who over the years have created over half a million entries. In short it is a gold mine of knowledge on Perl and programming in general. The Source for Perl -- perl development, perl conferences -- Welcome to the O'Reilly Perl Center -- computer books, perl books, perl programming
Perl Cookbook: Chapter 8, File Contents (O'Reilly)
Perl tutorial: Start
Please note: This tutorial was written in the early 1990's for version 4 of Perl. Although it is now significantly out of date, it was a popular source of information for many people over many years. It has therefore been left on-line as part of the historical archive of the Internet. Please also note that many of the external hyperlinks no longer function.
Perl-XML Frequently Asked Questions
The Perltidy Home Page
Perltidy is a Perl script which indents and reformats Perl scripts to make them easier to read. If you write Perl scripts, or spend much time reading them, you will probably find it useful.
Production Scripting with Perl - Table of Contents


Kotlin Programming Language
Tutorials - Kotlin Programming Language


AdoptOpenJDK - Open source, prebuilt OpenJDK binaries
JDK Builds from Oracle
Java | Oracle
The Java™ Tutorials
The Java Tutorials are practical guides for programmers who want to use the Java programming language to create applications. They include hundreds of complete, working examples, and dozens of lessons. Groups of related lessons are organized into "trails".
yet another insignificant Programming Notes
Tutorials on Java, Android, Web, and some C/C++
Java Technologies Tutorials
Java Tutorial - Tutorialspoint
Java8 Tutorial
Java 9 Tutorial
JavaFX Tutorial
O'Reilly CodeZoo


A Dive Into JavaScriptCore
WebKit JSC
JSCompress - The JavaScript Compression Tool
Online JavaScript beautifier
Beautify, unpack or deobfuscate JavaScript and HTML, make JSON/JSONP readable, etc.


Visual Basic Language Reference | Microsoft Docs

XML XML From the Inside Out -- XML development, XML resources, XML specifications
Cover Pages: Extensible Markup Language (XML)
Frequently-Asked Questions about the Extensible Markup Language; edited by Peter Flynn.
XML Files - Extensible Markup Language Tutorials for Developers
developerWorks : XML tutorials, code, and forums
RELAX NG is a schema language for XML.
Free XML tools and software
A frequently-updated and hopefully complete index of free XML tools, with much metadata about the tools to make them easier to locate.
XML pretty printer (xmlpp) and xmldiff
MSV - Multi Schema Validator — Project Kenai
The Multi-Schema XML Validator (MSV) is a Java technology tool to validate XML documents against several kinds of XML schemas. It supports RELAX NG, RELAX Namespace, RELAX Core, TREX, XML DTDs, and a subset of XML Schema Part 1. - XML Internationalization and Localization FAQ
You will find here answers to some of the frequently asked questions about XML internationalization and localization (including XSL, CSS, and other XML-related technologies). Character representation, encoding, language identification, presentation and rendering, localization.


JSON - Wikipedia
RFC 8259 - The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format
JSON Formatter, Validator and Converter Online
7 command-line tools for data science
jq - sed for JSON ; json2csv - convert JSON to CSV ; csvkit - suite of utilities for converting to and working with CSV ; scrape - HTML extraction using XPath or CSS selectors ; xml2json - convert XML to JSON ; and others
jq is a lightweight and flexible command-line JSON processor.
jq play
Play with jq JSON query.


GitHub - toml-lang/toml: Tom's Obvious, Minimal Language
TOML aims to be a minimal configuration file format that's easy to read due to obvious semantics. TOML is designed to map unambiguously to a hash table. TOML should be easy to parse into data structures in a wide variety of languages.


The Official YAML Web Site
YAML Ain't Markup Language.
YAML - Wikipedia

globalization, internationalization, localization (g11n, i18n, l10n)

The I18n G.A.L.: Linking all the Internationalization Myths
List of 15 myths about internationalization that should be banned. A Series of short blog articles.
Falsehoods Programmers Believe About Names | Kalzumeus Software
I18n in Software Design, Architecture and Implementation
Gone with the winds of *r*cl*, excerpts available at I18n in Software Design
Information Resources For Locales And Internationalization (i18nguy)

GIL Standards

The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7; IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, POSIX.1-2008.
Environment Variables
The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7; IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, POSIX.1-2008.
See 8.2 Internationalization Variables for LC_* and companions.
Language Tags
BCP 47 - Tags for Identifying Languages
A concatenation of relevant RFCs, namely RFC 5646 and RFC 4647
RFC 5646 - Tags for Identifying Languages
This document describes the structure, content, construction, and semantics of language tags for use in cases where it is desirable to indicate the language used in an information object.
Obsoletes RFC 4646, formerly known as RFC 3066bis, that obsoleted RFC 3066.
See also Language Tag Registry Update (ltru).
Language subtag lookup app (ishida)
Language Tags (
BCP 47 / RFC 5646 / 4646 resources for users, software developers and standard authors.
Unfortunately with outdated 404 links.
Language Tags: The registry in various formats
RFC 4646 language tags test data set
IANA Language Subtag Registry
Valid subtags for language tags.
IANA Language Tag Extensions Registry
Language tags extensions.
Unicode Utilities: Unicode Language Identifers and BCP47
Understanding the New Language Tags (W3C BCP 47)
W3C i18n article: Language tags in HTML and XML
W3C I18N FAQ: Two-letter or three-letter language codes
RFC 5645 - Update to the Language Subtag Registry
This memo defines the procedure used to update the IANA Language Subtag Registry, in conjunction with the publication of RFC 5646, for use in forming tags for identifying languages.
RFC 6067 - BCP 47 Extension U
This document specifies an Extension to BCP 47 that provides subtags that specify language and/or locale-based behavior or refinements to language tags, according to work done by the Unicode Consortium.
See also Unicode Extensions for BCP 47 - CLDR - Unicode Common Locale Data Repository
RFC 6497 - BCP 47 Extension T - Transformed Content
This document specifies an Extension to BCP 47 that provides subtags for specifying the source language or script of transformed content, including content that has been transliterated, transcribed, or translated, or in some other way influenced by the source.
RFC 4645 - Initial Language Subtag Registry
This memo defined the initial contents of the IANA Language Subtag Registry for use in forming tags for the identification of languages.
RFC 4647 - Matching of Language Tags
This document describes a syntax, called a "language-range", for specifying items in a user's list of language preferences. It also describes different mechanisms for comparing and matching these to language tags.
RFC 3066 - Tags for the Identification of Languages
Obsoleted by RFC 5646.
RFC 3066 Language code assignments
draft-langtags: Understanding the Reasons for Change
Reasons for Enhancing RFC 3066 (RFC3066bis).
Pointer to draft-phillips-langtags-* by Addison Phillips and Mark Davis
Language Tag Registry Update (ltru) Charter
Tags for Identifying Languages draft-ietf-ltru-registry-*
Matching Tags for the Identification of Languages draft-ietf-ltru-matching-*
Initial Language Subtag Registry draft-ietf-ltru-initial-*
IANA Assigned Language Tags
OBSOLETE - per RFC-ietf-ltru-registry-14.txt
IANA Directory of language tag applications
OBSOLETE - per RFC-ietf-ltru-registry-14.txt
LocaleMapping – Wiki
Mapping Unix Locale Identifiers to BCP-47, by Caolán McNamara
liblangtag is an interface library to access/deal with tags for identifying languages, which is described in RFC 5646.
language-tags : Python Package Index
This project is a Python version of the language-tags Javascript project.
Index of /~caolanm/BCP47
a prototype bcp47 parsing lib
IETF language tag - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
BCP 47 Validator
Check a language tag whether it is well-formed and its subtags are valid (registered with IANA).
gtk/LINGUAS at master · GNOME/gtk · GitHub
Languages known by gtk+ translations in glibc notation (eg. ca@valencia)
It would be too easy if everything just understood BCP 47.
ISO 639 Language Codes
ISO 639-2: Registration Authority - Library of Congress
ISO 639-2 Language Code List - Codes for the representation of names of languages (Library of Congress)
Codes arranged alphabetically by Alpha-3 Code.
Alpha-3 codes arranged alphabetically by English name of Language - Codes for the representation of names of languages (Library of Congress)
ISO 639-3 Registration Authority - SIL International
Part 3 of the ISO 639 family of standards, Codes for the representation of names of languages. ISO 639-3 attempts to provide as complete an enumeration of languages as possible, including living, extinct, ancient, and constructed languages, whether major or minor, written or unwritten.
ISO 639 Code Tables | ISO 639-3
ISO 639-1, ISO 639-2, ISO 639-3 at SIL
ISO 639-3 - Wikipedia
Category:ISO 639 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
ISO 639 and ISO 639-2: The Code Lists (, outdated)
ISO 639 Languages and Dialects, and More (, outdated)
ISO 639-1: Language Codes
MediaGlyphs Project - Languages: original language names in their own scripts
Language names in their original form and script, English and French names, associated country codes and common text encodings used for that language.
HeBIS-Handbuch 1500_iso (PDF)
Deutsche Sprachennamen, alphabetisch nach ISO-Kodes.
HeBIS-Handbuch 1500_spra (PDF)
Deutsche Sprachennamen, alphabetisch nach Sprachen.
ISO 15924 Script Codes
ISO 15924 Registration Authority
ISO 15924 - Code Lists
Script codes * ISO 15924 * Codes d'écriture
Languages and Scripts (CLDR)
Language and Scripts (
ISO 3166 Country Codes
ISO 3166 Maintenance agency (ISO 3166/MA)
ISO's focal point for country codes
ISO 3166 code lists
Short country names and alpha-2 code elements officially published by ISO.
ISO - Maintenance Agency for ISO 3166 country codes - ISO 3166-1 decoding table
Definition of all code elements available in the alpha-2 code of ISO's country code standard.
ISO 3166 - Wikipedia
ISO 3166-1, ISO 3166-2, ISO 3166-3
Country code - Wikipedia
ISO 3166-1: The Code List
ISO 3166-1: Country Names
With links to ISO 3166-2 region codes ("Country subdivision code") for each country code.
ISO 3166-1: The Code List
ISO 3166: Country Codes according to ISO 3166
Country codes in ISO 3166
Existing codes and withdrawn codes.
Changes in ISO 3166-1
Change history.
Open Directory - Science: Reference: Standards: Individual Standards: ISO 3166
United Nations Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)
Territory Containment (UN M.49) (CLDR)
continents, regions, countries, timezones
Subdivision Codes list
Location Codes list
UNGEGN - United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
GEONAMES - Countries of the World
The countries of the world in their local languages and scripts, with official names, capitals, flags, administrative divisions, and translations of the country and capital names into many different languages.
CommonDataHub -- Global Data Standards Repository and Hosted Enterprise Data Management
Country: ISO 3166 country codes, UN regions and sub-regions, international dialing codes, ISO 10383 MIC
State/Province/Region: ISO 3166-2 state codes, FIPS state codes
City: cities in US and Canada, large cities in the world (population > 20000), cities in the world (population > 5000)
Language: ISO 639-1 / 639-2 language codes
Currency: ISO 4217 country-currency codes, distinct currencies (active)
DOSCO - Wissen / Sprach- und Ländercodes -----
German language and country names. Deutsche Sprachen- und Ländernamen. Not very.. erm.. reliable I think.
WIPO recommends the use of YU instead of CS until the ISO 3166/MA has taken a final decision (PDF)
The ISO-3166/MA decision to reuse CS (formerly Czechoslovakia) for "Serbia and Montenegro" was rather short-sighted. This WIPO recommendation of 25 November 2003 says how to deal with such a bad idea.
Note: this is rather historical, as the situation won't change anymore and CS is more widely supported now.
ISO 4217 Currency Codes
Currency Code Service
ISO 4217 Maintenance Agency
ISO 4217 - Wikipedia
ISO 4217 - Wikipedia
German page, sometimes is more up-to-date than English page.
List of currencies - Wikipedia
The Euro (European Commission)
Conversion rates and rules - European Commission
Your country and the euro - European Commission - World Currency Symbols - ISO 4217 Type Currency Code List
ISO 8601 Date & Time Representation
xkcd: ISO 8601
ISO 8601 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
ISO 8601: International Standard Date and Time Notation
A good overview by Markus Kuhn.
ISO 8601 Date Time
A fairly detailed description of what the ISO 8601 standard specifies.
Info on ISO 8601, the date and time representation standard
Jukka "Yucca" Korpela
Date and Time Formats
The W3C TR NOTE on date and time formats, defines a profile of ISO 8601.
RFC 3339 - Date and Time on the Internet: Timestamps
This document defines a date and time format for use in Internet protocols that is a profile of the ISO 8601 standard for representation of dates and times using the Gregorian calendar.
Implementation of the ISO 8601 Standard Around The World.
Mathematics of the ISO calendar
Extended Date Time Format (EDTF) Specification (Library of Congress)
Level 0 specifies features of ISO 8601-1; Levels 1 and 2 specify features described by ISO 8601-2.
EDTF - The Extended Date/Time Format - defines features to be supported in a date/time string, features considered useful for a wide variety of applications.
WeekNumber Calculation Explanation
Calculating the ISO week number. ISO 8601 page - Converting and Implementing
Unicode Home Page
Index of /Public files
UAX #9: The Bidirectional Algorithm
JTC1/SC2/WG2 is the international standardization working group for the coded character set UCS - the Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set - ISO/IEC 10646.
Unicode - Wikipedia
The Unicode Standard(s) (czyborra)
What document(s) define(d) the Unicode standard?
Unicode's characters (czyborra)
UTF-8 and Unicode FAQ
Unicode fonts and tools for X11
Unicode/UTF-8-character table
Unicode and multilingual support in HTML, fonts, Web browsers and other applications
Alan Woods Unicode Resources
International text support on Linux
Programming with Unicode
Joel on Software - The Absolute Minimum Every Software Developer Absolutely, Positively Must Know About Unicode and Character Sets (No Excuses!)
What every JavaScript developer should know about Unicode
Quite a good introduction, not only for JavaScript devs, if you abstract from the code examples.
ongoing by Tim Bray · On the Goodness of Unicode
ongoing · Characters vs. Bytes
Well, I'm Back: String Theory
"UTF-16 is the devil's work." --Robert O'Callahan
Dashes and hyphens (Yucca)
Soft hyphen (SHY) - a hard problem? (Yucca)
Character encoding
Text Encoding Table index - Programming | String-functions
If your text encoding went awry..
Macchiato [Mark Davis]
Open Directory - Computers: Software: Globalization: Character Encoding: Unicode
Character Model for the World Wide Web: String Matching (W3C)
UTS #10: Unicode Collation Algorithm
Collation Charts (Unicode)
Collation diff files: (CLDR)
Collation - ICU Documentation
Mimer Developers - Features - Character data, Unicode and Collations
Mimer SQL Unicode Collation Tailorings
Code Charts - Scripts (, PDFs)
Name List Charts (
ICU Demonstration - Unicode Browser
Find all Unicode characters from Hieroglyphs to Dingbats – Codepoints
Unicode - Compart
IANA Character Sets, Planes, Blocks, Character Categories, Bidirectional Classes, Combining Classes, Decomposition, Mirrored Characters, Scripts, HTML Entities, References.
Graphemica - For people who ♥ letters, numbers, punctuation, &c
📙 Emojipedia — 😃 Home of Emoji Meanings 💁👌🎍😍
Charbase: A visual unicode database
Shapecatcher: Draw the Unicode character you want!
Unicode (
Unicode characters, search, blocks, categories, support in fonts, UTF-8 browser test pages.
unum - Interconvert numbers, Unicode, and HTML/XHTML characters
Fourmilab's stand-alone utility program written in portable Perl which allows you to look up Unicode and HTML characters by name or number, and interconvert numbers in decimal, hexadecimal, and octal bases.
UniView (ishida)
An XHTML-based application to look up characters, character blocks, paste in and discover unknown characters, search for characters, do hex/dec/ncr conversions, highlight character types, etc. etc.
List characters tool (ishida)
Identifies Unicode characters in a string.
Character usage (ishida)
Lists characters used in a language.
Unicode code converter (ishida)
Unicode character pickers (ishida)
An Introduction to Writing Systems & Unicode (ishida)
r12a >> apps (ishida)
ishida >> utilities: normalizer
Converts text into Unicode normalisation forms NFD and NFC.
Not available anymore, some almost empty blog? And not on either.
Unicode Utilities: Character Properties (CLDR)
UTF Converter (macchiato)
JavaScript Unicode Charts (macchiato)
Only Unicode 4.1.0
Character set, code pages, encodings, at the push of a button (i18nguy)
Letter database: languages, character sets, names etc (EKI, Eesti Keele Instituut)
An independent online-platform for digital type culture. It has the objectives of creating a basis for fundamental typographic research and facilitating a textual approach to the characters of the world for all computer users.
PRI #294 Background: Emoji Glyph/Annotation Recommendations
ftfy - fix unicode that's broken in various ways
Meant is fix the broken decoding of the broken encoding.. by guessing what the string might have been.
Character Sets
ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG3 - 7 and 8-bit coded character sets
WG3 is a standardization Working Group of the SC2 which is a SubCommittee of JTC1 - a Joint Techical Committee of ISO and IEC.
WG3 works on 7-bit and 8-bit codes and their extensions. Examples of coded character sets made by WG3 are the ISO/IEC 8859 parts and the ISO 6429 coded control character set.
A registry of coded character sets is maintained under WG3 supervision by IPSJ/ITSCJ in the ISO 2375 registry.
International Register of Coded Character Sets (IPSJ/ITSCJ)
Character Sets (IANA)
These are the official names for character sets that may be used in the Internet and may be referred to in Internet documentation.
Character Set Registrations at IANA
List of Character Set Registrations not defined in RFCs
ISO 8859 Alphabet Soup (czyborra)
Charsets Index (Kosta Kostis)
Characters and encodings (Jukka "Yucca" Korpela)
Letter database: languages, character sets, names etc
Form with various queries regarding character sets / encodings and Unicode
Character Sets (FileFormat.Info)
[Ping] Japanese text encoding
ISO Latin 9 as compared with ISO Latin 1
The ISO Latin 9 (ISO 8859-15) character set differs from the well-known ISO Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1) character set in a few positions only. The euro sign and some national letters used e.g. in French and Finnish have been introduced and some rarely used special characters omitted.
Some codepage tables, Latin ISO 8859, DOS and Windows, generated from Unicode database
Character encoding programs and ISO 8859-x codepages for MS-DOS (Kosta Kostis)
Brief History of Character Codes in North America, Europe, and East Asia
Everson Typography: The Alphabets of Europe
Doug Ewell's Home Page
Unicode, Ewellic Alphabet, Coding standards, Language tagging (BCP 47)
ICU Coded Charset Mapping Tables
ICU Demonstration - Converter Explorer
Unicode programming, with examples
Characters and ICU example programs.
Everson Typography: Codes for Internationalization
ISO ####, TC##
Units of Measurement
A4 Paper / International Standard Paper Sizes
Metric Typographic Units
Logistics World: Reference Libarary
airlines, airport codes, seaport codes, international dialing codes, ISO 3166 country codes, country profiles
List of country calling codes - Wikipedia
International Calling Codes - Pg1
International Calling Codes - Numerical Listing
NANPA: North American Numbering Plan Administration

GIL points

ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG20 - Internationalization
W3C Internationalization and Localization
OpenI18N - The Free Standards Group Open Internationalization Initiative
CLDR Project (CLDR - Unicode Common Locale Data Repository)
UTR #35: Locale Data Markup Language
CLDR Vetting |
CLDR Development Site (cldr)
Notes and docs on CLDR site development.
GitHub - unicode-cldr/cldr-json: JSON Data from the Unicode CLDR Project
ICU - International Components for Unicode
Locales and Resources - ICU Documentation
ICU Demonstration - List of ICU Demonstrations
Everson Typography
Internationalization (I18n), Localization (L10n), Standards, and Amusements (i18nguy)
Database Internationalization Resources - Antikythera Publications
ScriptSource - Writing systems, computers and people
ScriptSource is a dynamic, collaborative reference to the writing systems of the world, with detailed information on scripts, characters, languages - and the remaining needs for supporting them in the computing realm.
Welcome to Computers and Writing Systems
Non-Roman and complex scripts in linguistic study, translation, literacy, and publishing.
This site is dedicated to the tools and technologies used in the localization of software, on-line help and documentation. Its aim is to provide you with useful information and tools that could help you streamline your localization processes.
Open Directory - Computers: Software: Globalization
Multilingual Applications in WWW/Internet
CIA -- The World Factbook
Peoples Resources - Art & Life in Africa
Countries Resources - Art & Life in Africa
Date format by country - Wikipedia
YMD, DMY, MDY, yy or yyyy, ...
Date and time representation by country - Wikipedia
Date and time notation in Europe - Wikipedia
List of adoption dates of the Gregorian calendar per country - Wikipedia
Locale Views
CLDR Charts - CLDR - Unicode Common Locale Data Repository
ICU Demonstration - Locale Explorer
Was broken and might work again.
International Components for Unicode (ICU) Data
LocalePlanet's ICU data and ULocale lists.
Java Locale Viewer
Locale Helper
Ease creation and maintenance of glibc locale files.
Locale Helper: en_DK
English Denmark locale
GitHub - PanderMusubi/locale-en-nl: 🇳🇱 English language locale for the Netherlands (en_NL)
Ethnologue, Languages of the World (
Open Language Archives Community - OLAC
Linguist List - Find a Language or Family
This facility searches a database containing all current ISO 639-3 codes.
Linguist List - Language and Resources Index Page
A Digital Library of Language Relationships. Note that the codes they use are NOT related to BCP 47 language tags or ISO 639!
Omniglot - a guide to written language (alphabets, hieroglyphs, Chinese characters, etc)
Lists of languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The World Atlas of Language Structures Online
Languages (World Language Resources)
Countries (World Language Resources)
Language Information | Language Facts | Language Statistics (phrasebase)
Country Information | Country Facts | Country Statistics (phrasebase)
What are the most spoken languages on earth?
Links to resources for 350 languages.
Articles for translators - Languages
Language Reference Guides, grammar and spelling, punctuation, measurements and abbreviations, hyphenation, character set.
The Webbook of African Language Resources at Michigan State University
African Languages - African Languages info
Master of Arts in Language Studies: Yamada Language Guide |
European minority languages
iLoveLanguages - Your Guide to Languages on the Web
A comprehensive catalog of language-related Internet resources. Comprehensive and Authoritative Language Portal
Nationalism and Language (by Bozidar Jaksic)

GIL misc

my cross-cultural Calendar links
Merlyn - Date and Time Index and Links - J R Stockton
Calendar date - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Includes information about date formats used in different countries.
Time zone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
List of tz database time zones - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sources for Time Zone and Daylight Saving Time Data
The tz database and related.
IANA — Time Zone Database
Date and Time Gateway - Timezone Selector
Names as extensions to POSIX defined by the Olson tz database.
i18nFAQTimeZone - ESW Wiki
W3C Internationalization Core WG: Working with Times and Time Zones.
Timezone curiosities
Falsehoods programmers believe about time: @noahsussman: Infinite Undo
More falsehoods programmers believe about time;...: @noahsussman: Infinite Undo
The Best Of Dates, The Worst Of Dates (
Hebrew libraries/widgets/algorithms/specifications/documentation
The Hebrew Numbering System
Hebrew Numbers and Counting (i18nguy)
Free Hebrew Software for Unix
Arabeyes Project
Thai Information Technology Standards
Evolution of Alphabets
Numeral system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about different methods of expressing numbers with symbols.
CSS3 module: Lists
This CSS level 3 module describes how lists are styled. Covers different native numeral systems.
Unicode in the Unix Environment (
Universal Locales for Linux
Introduction to i18n (Debian)
EUROPA The official website of the European Union - Where Stats Come Alive!
Central data source and a handy way to graphically compare nations. NationMaster is a vast compilation of data from such sources as the CIA World Factbook, United Nations, World Health Organization, World Bank, World Resources Institute, UNESCO, UNICEF and OECD.
NIST Time and Frequency Division - Frequently Asked Questions
Trail: Internationalization (The Java™ Tutorials)
Locale Enhancement Project Home (OpenJDK Locale Enhancement Project)
A complete guide to i18n in Python -


Globalization Documentation - Globalization | Microsoft Docs
[MS-LCID]: Windows Language Code Identifier (LCID) Reference
It seems this could be the canonical place for information after having it watched for a few years. PDF and DOCX.
When you thought something could be a complete reference.. there'll be something else you didn't find yet.
Language Identifier Constants and Strings (Windows)
Well, this one might could had evolved into a real reference page.
Thank you, Microsoft, for moving around pages again and again and changing content to make sure one doesn't find the information at bookmarked places.
Localization and .NET Passport Services
This is yet another place with LCID information.
CultureInfo Class (.NET Framework)
Represents information about a specific culture including the names of the culture, the writing system, and the calendar used, as well as access to culture-specific objects that provide information for common operations, such as formatting dates and sorting strings. Includes basic mapping of LCIDs to ISO 639/3166 codes.
National Language Support Constants (Windows)
Hey, did I already mention that pages move around and bookmarks rotten?
Locales and Languages (Windows)
Yet another updated bookmark.
[MS-LCID]: Locale Names without LCIDs | Microsoft Docs
A long list of LCID 0x1000 "assigned" locales, i.e. no LCID at all but "do it yourself, we don't care".
See also Cuba's [es-CU based] LCID of 0x1000 basically means "do it yourself, with elevated permissions"


Category:Calc - The Document Foundation Wiki
LibreOffice Calc, the spreadsheet application
Apache OpenOffice Calc
Spreadsheet Project - Filter Test Documents Calc spreadsheet Excel import test documents.
GNOME Office - Gnumeric
operators and functions test cases, Excel documents, in Gnumeric
gnumeric samples
test case files
Software Garden Products: wikiCalc Program
Dan Bricklin's Wiki-Spreadsheet
Project jQuery.sheet
Ajax JavaScript & php spreadsheet plugin for the web browser.
Excel specifications and limits - Excel -
Workbook, worksheet, calculation, charting, PivotTable, PivotChart and shared workbook specifications and limits.
The Spreadsheet Page - By John Walkenbach
The Spreadsheet Page - Excel Oddities
Index of Help for Excel functions, graphs and testing
Excel Functions and Formulas (
Guidelines and examples of array formulas - Office Support
Function names, separators, CELL and INFO arguments in various languages.
500 Excel Formula Examples | Exceljet
Excel formula: Get value of last non-empty cell | Exceljet
Excel formula: Average the last 3 numeric values | Exceljet
Explain =LOOKUP(2,1/(A2:A10=D2),B2:B10) [SOLVED]
Or: Excel seems to ignore (at least #DIV/0!) error values in LOOKUP arrays; another non-specified undocumented behaviour.
See also excel - Logic behind last evaluation step of a LOOKUP formula to find last non empty value in a row. - Stack Overflow
Excel How To - Free Excel Tutorials Online (
Microsoft Excel - Tutorials -
Sharing Tips and Tutorials for Excel
Burns Statistics -- Spreadsheet Addiction
Pearson Software Consulting Services (Chip's Excel Web Source)
Microsoft Excel Tips from Excel Tip .com / Excel Tutorial / Free Excel Help
Design and Use of the Microsoft Excel Solver
GitHub - WizardMac/TimeFormatStrings: Convert Excel, POSIX, Stata, and Unicode time format strings
Review guidelines for customizing a number format - Excel
See also ECMA-376-1:2016 OOXML specification, 18.8.30 numFmt (Number Format), 18.8.31 numFmts (Number Formats)
[MS-OE376]: Part 4 Section 3.8.30, numFmt (Number Format) | Microsoft Docs
(International incomplete) ABNF of number format codes.
Excel functions (alphabetical) - Office Support
Microsoft Excel function translations
xlam - Excel and more!
A page in German language about Excel with lot of information, but not very easy to the eye ...
Get a list of distinct / unique values in Excel & extract unique rows
Using formula expressions and not Standard Filter with unique output.
Google spreadsheets function list - Docs editors Help
GOOGLEFINANCE - Docs editors Help
The GOOGLEFINANCE spreadsheet function (and some related in the sidebar list)
How to Import Share Price Data into Excel - Market Index
Rather a documentation of the parameters
EtherCalc - Share the URL to your friends and edit together!
comp.apps.spreadsheets FAQ
Spreadsheet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spreadsheet Project
Spreadsheet Engineering Research Project (SERP)
Excel Hell: It's not just blame for pandemic pandemonium being spread between the sheets • The Register


Is It Practical To Use Excel For Stats?
Reliability of Statistical Procedures in Excel
SSfM: Testing the Intrinsic Functions of Excel
Errors, Faults and Fixes for Excel Statistical Functions and Routines
Fixing Statistical Errors in Spreadsheet Software: The Cases of Gnumeric and Excel (PDF)
One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | Real Statistics Using Excel
Factorial ANOVA | Real Statistics Using Excel
xkcd: Geothmetic Meandian
This is what spreadsheet users really want.

File Formats

Standards | OASIS
Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) Version 1.2
OpenDocument v1.2 part 2: Recalculated Formula (OpenFormula) Format (.ODT)
OpenDocument v1.2 part 2: Recalculated Formula (OpenFormula) Format (.HTML)
OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) TC
Developing an XML-based file format specification for office applications.
OpenDocument - Formula SC | OASIS
Historical: This was the [OASIS OpenDocument] subcommittee working on a specification for recalculated formulas (e.g., spreadsheet formulas) in office documents.
OASIS Open: OpenDocument - Formula Public Documents
Historical: This was the then ongoing OpenDocument Format Formula specification (ODFF aka OpenFormula).
OpenDocument 1.1 - Complete documentation and samples
At Schema Central, generated from the ODF schema. XML File Format XML File Format Definition, FAQ, and other information. OASIS OpenDocument File Format Standardization.
The original "OpenFormula" was an attempt to develop a specification defining how to exchange formulas, primarily for spreadsheets and word processor documents.
The draft is now history, it was donated to the OASIS OpenDocument subcommittee as a starting point for further work.
Projects · orcus / orcus · GitLab
Library for processing spreadsheet documents. Orcus is a library that provides a collection of standalone file processing filters.
Compound Document file format documentation (ODF .odt, ~52k)'s Documentation of the Microsoft Compound Document File Format.
Compound Document file format documentation (PDF, ~204k)
Excel file format documentation (in progress) (ODF .odt, ~280k)'s Documentation of the Microsoft Excel File Format. Simply the best documentation available for that file format.
Excel file format documentation (in progress) (PDF, ~990k)
libreoffice/contrib/mso-dumper - Python scripts for dumping the contents of Microsoft Office binary file formats into human readable content
TC45 - Office Open XML Formats
Ecma International's TC45 on Microsoft's XML file format.
Standard ECMA-376
Office Open XML File Formats, MS' OOXML
ISO/IEC 29500 versions available at Publicly Available Standards
[MS-OE376]: Office Implementation Information for ECMA-376 Standards Support | Microsoft Docs
officeotron - Validation for Office documents (ODF and OOXML) - Google Project Hosting
OOXML - Complete documentation and samples
At Schema Central, generated from the OOXML schema.
[MS-DEVCENTLP]: Open Specifications Dev Center | Microsoft Docs
[MS-XLSX]: Excel (.xlsx) Extensions to the Office Open XML SpreadsheetML File Format
[MS-XLSX]: Formulas
ABNF grammar used by formulas.
DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Spreadsheet namespace ()
... of the Open XML SDK Class library reference. Might have some information in addition to to OOXML/ECMA.
Understanding the Open XML file formats
This section provides conceptual topics for understanding and working the Open XML file formats and markup languages.
[MS-OI29500]: Office Implementation Information for ISO/IEC 29500 Standards Support
Specifies information about how Microsoft Office implements ISO/IEC-29500 Office Open XML File Formats [ISO/IEC-29500:2008], including areas where additional detail may be of benefit to other implementers and areas where the product is known to vary from or extend the specification.
[MS-OODF3]: Office Implementation Information for ODF 1.2 Standards Support
Specifies information about how Office implements the OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) Version 1.2 [ODF1.2].
Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Standards Support
documentation contains detailed technical documents for the Open Document Format (ODF) and Open XML (ECMA-376 and ISO/IEC-29500) file formats implemented in Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.
Brian Jones: Office XML Formats : Excel (blog)
Complex singularity versus openness | Joinup
Open source impeded by incompatibilities and inconsistencies in the Office Open XML document format.
Microsoft Office File Formats
Binary file formats.
[MS-CFB]: Compound File Binary File Format | Microsoft Docs
[MS-XLS]: Excel Binary File Format (.xls) Structure Specification
[MS-XLS]: Records
[MS-XLS]: By Number Record Enumeration
The SOSCQ Page (Excel) - Excel-Dateiformat BIFF
Office Drawing 97-2007 Binary Format Specification
Also known as Escher, .PDF from MS
Microsoft Office 97 Drawing File Format
Also known as Escher, Chicago project.
Download Details - Microsoft Download Center - BFFValidator
Microsoft Office Binary File Format Validator
Microsoft Open Specifications Support Team Blog - Site Home - MSDN Blogs
A bucket of details on [MS-...] specs.
Why are the Microsoft Office file formats so complicated? (And some workarounds) – Joel on Software


CSV Comma Separated Value File Format (How To) - Creativyst, Inc. Design, Software, Services
RFC 4180 - Common Format and MIME Type for Comma-Separated Values (CSV) Files
RFC 7111 - URI Fragment Identifiers for the text/csv Media Type
CSV on the Web: A Primer
CSV on the Web Current Status - W3C
CSV on the Web Working Group Wiki
W3C working group. The mission of the CSV on the Web Working Group, part of the Data Activity, is to provide technologies whereby data dependent applications on the Web can provide higher interoperability when working with datasets using the CSV (Comma-Separated Values) or similar formats. Mail Archives
of the W3C CSV on the Web Working Group
CSV on the Web Community Group
CSV on the Web: Use Cases and Requirements
This document lists the use cases compiled by the Working Group that are considered representative of how tabular data is commonly used within data dependent applications. The use cases observe existing common practice undertaken when working with tabular data, often illustrating shortcomings or limitations of existing formats or technologies. This document also provides a set of requirements derived from these use cases that have been used to guide the specification design.
Model for Tabular Data and Metadata on the Web
Tabular data is routinely transferred on the web as "CSV", but the definition of "CSV" in practice is very loose. This document outlines a basic data model or infoset for tabular data and metadata about that tabular data. It also contains some non-normative information about a best practice syntax for tabular data, for mapping into that data model, to contribute to the standardisation of CSV syntax by IETF. Various methods of locating metadata are also provided.
Open Data Institute | News | 2014: The Year of CSV
PEP 305 -- CSV File API (Python)
GitHub - vincentlaucsb/csv-parser: A modern C++ library for reading, writing, and analyzing CSV (and similar) files.
GitHub - wireservice/csvkit: A suite of utilities for converting to and working with CSV, the king of tabular file formats.
language agnostic - Scrape HTML tables from a given URL into CSV - Stack Overflow
Short description of the script
CSV to Markdown Table Generator — Donat Studios
Source at GitHub.
Loading CSV File at the Speed Limit of the NVMe Storage
GitHub - pmitros/tsvx: Prototype: Extended TSV format
Include a header in TSV (Tab Separated Values) files, column names, types, ...

Risks & Vulnerabilities

The Absurdly Underestimated Dangers of CSV Injection
Comma Separated Vulnerabilities | Context Information Security
Data Exfiltration via Formula Injection #Part1
Formula Injection - Pentestmag
A Tale of Exploitation in Spreadsheet File Conversions | Brett Buerhaus
European Spreadsheet Risks Interest Group - spreadsheet risk management and solutions conference
European Spreadsheet Risks Interest Group - spreadsheet risk management and solutions conference
Horror Stories
Differences between the 1900 and the 1904 date system - Office | Microsoft Docs
Microsoft Excel - Wikipedia #Quirks

OAuth & OAuth2

OAuth Community Site
An open protocol to allow secure API authorization in a simple and standard method from desktop and web applications.
Code -- OAuth
Libraries and other supporting examples.
Everything You Need to Know About OAuth (2.0)
OAuth 2.0 Simplified
Understanding OAuth2 and OpenID Connect (OIDC)
authentication - What's the difference between OpenID and OAuth? - Stack Overflow
OAuth Authorization vs Authentication - Stack Overflow
G Suite Updates Blog: Turning off less secure app access to G Suite accounts
G Suite Updates Blog: Less secure app turn-off suspended until further notice
GitHub - google/gmail-oauth2-tools: Tools and sample code for authenticating to Gmail with OAuth2
Specifically gmail-oauth2-tools/ at master · google/gmail-oauth2-tools · GitHub Python2
Works with Mutt OAuthBearer.
OAuth2DotPyRunThrough · google/gmail-oauth2-tools Wiki · GitHub How to set OAuth2 up with Google.
GitHub - ksuzukiTVDn1/gmail-oauth2-tools: Tools and sample code for authenticating to Gmail with OAuth2
Updated gmail-oauth2-tools/ at master · ksuzukiTVDn1/gmail-oauth2-tools · GitHub to Python3 and googleapiv2
Authenticate an IMAP, POP or SMTP connection using OAuth | Microsoft Docs
Of course that is SASL XOAUTH2 and not OAuthBearer ...
Was ist OAuth/ OAuth2.0? - IONOS

Jugend hackt

Linkliste zu verschiedenen Programmiersprachen, zu Web- und App-Entwicklung und sonstige nützliche Seiten.
CCC | Chaos macht Schule
Teckids e.V. - Willkommen beim Teckids e.V.
Raspberry Pi Guide - Projekte, How To's, Tipps, Zubehör
Raspberry Pi Tutorials

Kids & Robots

Learn computer science. Change the world. |
Programmieren leicht gemacht - adäquate Modelle für den Einsatz im Unterricht - Wikibooks, Sammlung freier Lehr-, Sach- und Fachbücher
Computer Science Unplugged
CS Unplugged is a collection of free learning activities that teach Computer Science through engaging games and puzzles that use cards, string, crayons and lots of running around.
Creative Programming Environment for Schools.
Ziel des Projekts ist die Bereitstellung einer kostenlosen und intuitiven Lernsoftware mit deren Hilfe Kinder im Alter ab 8 Jahren durch die Steuerung eines virtuellen Roboters grundlegende Programmierkenntnisse erwerben können.
Robot Karol - mebis
Robot Karol ist eine Programmierumgebung mit einer Programmiersprache, die für Schülerinnen und Schüler zum Erlernen des Programmierens und zur Einführung in die Algorithmik gedacht ist.
Learn and teach programming. PayWare with Demo. Also available in German and French. MINDSTORMS
LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT -- Lego Mindstorms NXT - in der Schule
Deutsche NXT-FAQ
NXT Programs - Fun Projects for your LEGO Mindstorms NXT
Lego Mindstorms Forum NXT bis RCX , Spybotics
Matthias Paul Scholz's LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT page
Michael Gasperi's LEGO Mindstorms Sensor Input Page
NXT-Tutorial (Lukas Webseite)
Ein Tutorial zum NXT, das sich mit der Programmierung von Software mit NXC unter Linux beschäftigt. :: The Central Site for the LDraw Family of LEGO® CAD Software
qfix | Roboterbau, Roboterbausatz, Roboter
DIDEL - Microrobots and educational kits for technical schools and hobby roboticians


How to become a developer: A cheat sheet - TechRepublic
1x Engineer
If there's such a thing as a 10x engineer, surely there must be a 1x engineer, too?
How to Deal with Difficult People on Software Projects
IANA -- Protocol Registries
IANA is responsible for maintaining many of the codes and numbers contained in a variety of Internet protocols. - Home is open source / open discussion software projects working on interoperability and shared technology for X Window System desktops. Technical Reference Site
Patentability and Democracy in Europe
Software Patent Archive
Bernhardt & Krasser: Lehrbuch des Patentrechts -- Recht der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Europäisches und Internationales Patentrecht
GULP - Das Portal für IT Projekte
The Programming Language Lua
Debugging Mozilla on Linux FAQ (Tips on using gdb and ddd on Linux)
The Code Project - Homepage - Free Source code and Tutorials
Parallax Scrolling, Java Cryptography, YAML, Python Data Science, Java i18n, GitLab, TestRail, VersionOne, DBUtils, Common CLI, Seaborn, Ansible, LOLCODE, Current Affairs 2018, Apache Commons Collections
Tutorials, tutorial, tutorials.
Ruby Central
Lern Programmieren mit Java!
Welcome to The PC Guide!
ISBN Converter
European Article Number - Wikipedia
Bundesbank - Zahlungsverkehr - Prüfzifferberechnung
Bundesbank - Zahlungsverkehr - Bankleitzahlen
The tcshrc Project Page
Galileo Computing - Bücher zur Programmierung und Softwareentwicklung
bietet im Bereich <openbook> ausgewählte Bücher als HTML-Version.
O'Reilly's CD bookshelf
Reference Library O'Reilly
c++ģʽ C++Éè¼Æģʽ C++²âÊÔ C++¿ª·¢-UML Èí¼þ¹¤³Ì×éÖ¯
BIPM - measurement units
Bureau International des Poids et Mesures - The International System of Units (SI)
BIPM - SI Brochure
SI Brochure: The International System of Units (SI) [8th edition, 2006; updated in 2014]
SI -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics
"SI" stands for "System International" and is the set of physical units agreed upon by international convention.
Recommendations concerning Units (SI Units) | IAU
SI units and astronomical units
Astrodynamic Constants (NASA)
METAS - metasweb Masseinheiten / units of measurement
METAS - metasweb unit conversion
File:English Length Units Graph.svg - Wikimedia Commons
The next time someone asks about measurements point to this self-explanatory graphic.
BIPM - Table 7
Non-SI units accepted for use with the SI, and units based on fundamental constants.
Metric Conversion Tables to or from Imperial Measurements The SI System for Metric Conversion
Over 1000 factors on 12 pages for Metric Conversion. Plus 30 detail pages for Btu, water, paper, density, etc.
The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty
NIST Guide to SI Units - Appendix B9. Conversion Factors
Factors for units listed by kind of quantity or field of science.
Conversion of Units
Units Markup Language home page
The Unified Code for Units of Measure
The Unified Code for Units of Measure is a code system intended to include all units of measures being contemporarily used in international science, engineering, and business. The purpose is to facilitate unambiguous electronic communication of quantities together with their units. The focus is on electronic communication, as opposed to communication between humans.
Note that is not an official standard!
EasyRGB - Color math and programming code examples
Color Namer
Gwydion Dylan: Overview
Dylan is an advanced, object-oriented, dynamic language which supports the rapid development of programs. When needed, the programmer can later optimize [his or her] programs for more efficient execution by supplying type information to the compiler. Nearly all entities in Dylan (including functions, classes, and basic data types such as integers) are first class objects. Additionally Dylan supports multiple inheritance, polymorphism, multiple dispatch, keyword arguments, object introspection, and many other advanced features...
SPEC - Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation
A non-profit corporation formed to establish, maintain and endorse a standardized set of relevant benchmarks that can be applied to the newest generation of high-performance computers.
Predefined Macros | Microsoft Docs
Predefined preprocessor macros in the Microsoft Visual C++ (MSVC) compiler. (_WIN32, _WIN64, ...)
Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE)
Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) and NetDDE FAQ
AppData Specification
Every software center that exists allows the user to look at screenshots and a long description of the application before it is installed. For most users it allows them to answer the question Do I want to install this...
OpenShift by Red Hat
Develop, Host, and Scale Your Apps in the Cloud. The Open Hybrid Cloud Application Platform by Red Hat.
DGL • Hauptseite
DelphiGL, deutschsprachige Community für OpenGL und 3D-Programmierung.
Code Kata
Semantic Versioning 2.0.0 - Semantic Versioning
NVD - CPE Dictionary
Official Common Platform Enumeration (CPE) Dictionary.
CPE is a structured naming scheme for information technology systems, software, and packages.
Epoch (reference date) - Wikipedia
Notable epoch dates in computing
Epoch Converter - Unix Timestamp Converter
Date format converter
Convert between Text Date, RFC 822, ISO 8601, UNIX Timestamp, Mac Timestamp, Microsoft Timestamp and FILETIME (1601-01-01).
ShellCheck – shell script analysis tool A guide to preventing SQL injection
Vanilla JS
Vanilla JS is a fast, lightweight, cross-platform framework for building incredible, powerful JavaScript applications.
The Cryptopals Crypto Challenges
CSC 195.01 2013S : Class 05: Inter-Application Communication with D-Bus (1): The Basics
CSC 195.01 2013S : Class 06: Inter-Application Communication with D-Bus (2): Writing Servers
CSC 195.01 2013S : Class 08: Inter-Application Communication with D-Bus (3): Writing Clients
15 Types of Regression you should know
Resources | Google Summer of Code | Google Developers
Google Summer of Code Guides
For GSoC mentors and students.
AsciiDoc is a text document format for writing notes, documentation, articles, books, ebooks, slideshows, web pages, man pages and blogs. AsciiDoc files can be translated to many formats including HTML, PDF, EPUB, man page.
Advent of Code
Solve coding puzzles.
We Work Remotely: Remote jobs in design, programming, marketing and more
Free & Open Source Jobs -
Find engineering teams that share your values | Key Values
GitHub - remoteintech/remote-jobs: A list of semi to fully remote-friendly companies in tech.
Programming Interview Questions + Help Getting Job Offers | Interview Cake
Technical Phone Interview - Coding Hire
online text editor - collabedit
Welcome to RepoXplorer
316 projects over 35800 Git repositories (as of 2018-12-10) are indexed on this repoXplorer instance. You'll find stats about them and their contributors.
This instance of repoXplorer indexes git repositories Red Hat is known to contribute to.
A simple HTTP Request & Response Service.
Manual testing of security UI in web clients.
Natural language detection library for Rust.
Node.js npm registry; , , ...
A Lightning Talk.
All Remote | GitLab
GitLab is an all-remote company with team members located in more than 50 countries around the world. On this page and subpages, we'll share what "all remote" really means, how it works at GitLab, some tips and tricks for remote teams, and resources to learn more.
Ask HN: Good Remote Work Literature? | Hacker News
Text Rendering Hates You
Processing is a flexible software sketchbook and a language for learning how to code within the context of the visual arts.
URL Standard
Addressing some shortcomings of RFC 3986.
Learn X in Y Minutes: Scenic Programming Language Tours
Guide to GDPR for App Developers
Introduction | WebRTC for the Curious
This book was created by WebRTC implementers to share their hard-earned knowledge with the world. WebRTC for the Curious is an Open Source book written for those that are always looking for more. This book doesn’t settle for abstraction.
Commit Message Generator (
WTF eG — VEBIT e. V.
Werkkooperative der Technikfreundinnen e. G. i. G.
Cosmopolitan C Library
cosmopolitan libc build-once run-anywhere c without devops
DMOJ: Modern Online Judge
The DMOJ is a modern contest platform and archive of programming problems.
draft-knodel-terminology-02 - Terminology, Power, and Inclusive Language in Internet-Drafts and RFCs
Office Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) reference | Microsoft Docs

File Formats

IANA | MIME Media Types
File Extension Seeker - Metasearch engine for file extensions
Metasearch engine for file extensions.
Document Liberation Project
The Document Liberation Project is a home for the growing community of developers united to free users from vendor lock-in of content. The project's libraries provide read support for file formats including MS Visio, CorelDraw, MS Publisher, Apple Keynote, and a handful of different old Macintosh formats.
re-lab - Gitorious
RE-lab is a joint effort of team and developers of various open source projects to do clean-room reverse engineering of various proprietary file formats useful for the mankind.
Tools include oletoy.
File Signatures - Best File Extension / Type / Format Resources List - File extension library
FileInfo - The File Extensions Database
Dot What? - File Extension resource
File Format Documentation Collection (
A few file formats. Best for Lotus 1-2-3.
[MS-OFFFFLP]: Technical Documents | Microsoft Docs
[MS-OFFSTANDLP]: Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Standards Support | Microsoft Docs
The MetaFileExplorer - EMF, Windows only
FIG Formats
The digital negative DNG archival format for camera raw files (Adobe)
Autodesk - AutoCAD - DXF Reference
AutoCAD 2000 DXF Reference
PDFlib GmbH - Books: Die PostScript- und PDF-Bibel
Das ganze Buch - jetzt zum kostenlosen Download
veraPDF | Industry Supported PDF/A Validation
Xbase Data file (*.dbf)
dBASE III to 5
dBASE .DBF File Structure
dBASE File Format (with coding details): DBF and DBT/FPT file structure | Independent Software
Classic Planet PDF - fsType Definitions
Indicates font embedding licensing rights for the font.
Digital Corpora
A website of digital corpora for use in computer forensics education research. Of specific interest to developers of applications and file format filters may be the files of various formats at Govdocs1 — (nearly) 1 million freely-redistributable files
Data Converter Tools - Tool Slick
GitHub - x1sc0/office-interoperability-tools: Tools for evaluation of interoperability of office packages
File: Test.svg - Wikimedia Commons
If you need SVG test files, there's a bunch of them in the file history.
MetadataWorkingGroup Guidelines for handling image metadata
Attached to that forum post as mwg_guidance2.0.pdf

Fire And Motion - Joel on Software
Geek Cruises
Error Messages From The Bard
The International Obfuscated C Code Contest
Worlds Shortest C Implementation of Rot13
DevOps Reactions
The coding love
NandGame - Build a computer from scratch.
Drone-Ver v.1.sleepy.0.0.calamitous.1437363538.7
The ultimate software versioning scheme.
Programming Sucks
Programming Quotes


VisiCalc: Information from its creators, Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston
Including the original software executable running on DOS, only 27520 bytes
A Spreadsheet Way of Knowledge - Backchannel - Medium
About VisiCalc and Lotus 1-2-3, a 1984 article republished 2014-10-24
msharov/sc · GitHub
SC - The Spreadsheet Calculator. SC is a curses-based spreadsheet, written in the ancient times by James Gosling.
Borland Developer Network Museum
Turbo Pascal v1.0, v3.02, v5.5; Turbo C 2.01; Turbo C++ 1.01
Other History Sites
List of Dan Bricklin
The Slackware Linux Project: Slackware Release Announcement
Software Folklore ― Andreas Zwinkau
Bugs with symptoms beyond belief.
One Div Zero: A Brief, Incomplete, and Mostly Wrong History of Programming Languages
Esoteric resources at
Resources related to esoteric programming languages.
Two-Bit History
Computing through the ages.
Over 80K software development "tech talks" ranked algorithmically to surface the industry's best presentations from the past, present and future.
Hack_Curio: Decoding the Cultures of Hacking
Hack_Curio is a video portal into hackerdom that helps explains why hacking is one of the most important phenomena of global culture and politics in the late 20th and early 21st century.

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